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OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY. 



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CAII SALLUSTII CRISPI 
JUGUBTHA 



FOE USB IN SCHOOLS 



CHARLES MERIVALE, D.D. 

DEA.N OF ELY. 



Hontion 
MACMILLAN AKD CO., Limited 

NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 
1897 

All rights reserved. 



Taken from Sallust Catilina and yugurtha in 1858. 
First Edition printed separately by C.J. CLAY, 1866. 
Second Edition 1874. Reprinted 1877, 1879, 1880. 
Third Edition 1881. Reprinted 1882, 1884, 1887, 
1892, 1897. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



The general notice of Sallust and of his works 
which has been given as an introduction to my 
edition of the " Catiline/' contains a short refer- 
ence to the " Jugurtha" also, and need not be here 
repeated. In the present revision more atten- 
tion has been given to the punctuation, which 
had been suffered to be too profuse from the per- 
haps mistaken idea of assisting the young student 
thereby. It seems better, however, that he should 
be accustomed from the first to a more scientific 
system, which it may be hoped his teacher will 
study to explain to him. A good many fresh 
illustrations of the authors style and idioms have 
been introduced, and these more particularly from 
the poets. It is well that the reader should be 
led to notice the abundance of poetical phrase- 
ology in the earliest master of Latin history, and 



iv AD VERTISEMEFT. 

how evidently the verse- writers of the empire, 
and Lucan most of all, made a study of his 
language. Such illustrations are also calculated 
to make a stronger impression on the youthful 
student, and to recur more readily to his recol- 
lection. 



C. SALLUSTII CRISPI 

JUGUETHA. 



I. Falso queritur de natura sua genus humanum, 
quod imbecilla atque aevi brevis forte potius quam 
virtute regatur. Nam contra reputando neque majus 
aliud neque praestabilius invenies, magisque naturae 
industriam hominum quam vim aut tempus deesse. 
Sed dux atque imperator vitae mortalium animus est ; 
qui ubi ad gloriam virtutis via grassatur, abunde 
pollens potensque et clarus est, neque fortunae eget; 
quippe quae probitateni, industriam, alias artes bonas 
neque dare neque eripere cuiquam potest; sin captus 
pravis cupidinibus ad inertiam et voluptates corporis 
pessum datus est, perniciosa lubidine paullisper usus, 
ubi per socordiam vires, tempus, ingenium denuxere, 
naturae mfirmitas accusatur; suam quisque culpam 
auctores ad negotia transferunt. Quod si hominibus 
bonarum rerum tanta cura esset, quanto studio aliena 
ac nihil profutura, multumque etiam periculosa petunt, 
neque regerentur magis quam regerent casus, et eo 
magnitudinis procederent, uti pro mortalibus gloria 
aeterni nerent. 

II. Nam uti genus hominum compositum ex 
anima et corpore, ita res cunctae studiaque omnia 

jug. 1 



2 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

nostra corporis alia, alia animi naturam sequuntur. 
Igitur praeclara facies, magnae divitiae, ad hoc vis 
corporis alia hujuscemodi omnia brevi dilabuntur; at 
ingenii egregia f acinora sicuti anima immortalia sunt. 
Postremo corporis et fortunae bonorum ut initium, sic 
finis est, omniaque orta occidunt, et aucta senescunt ; 
animus incorruptus, aeternus, rector humani generis 
agit atque habet cuncta, neque ipse habetur. Quo 
magis pravitas eorum admiranda est, qui dediti cor- 
poris gaudiis per luxum atque ignaviam aetatem agunt; 
ceterum ingenium, quo neque melius neque amplius 
aliud in natura mortalium est, incultu atque secordia 
torpescere sinunt; quum praesertim tarn multae variae- 
que sint artes animi, quibus summa claritudo paratur. 

III. Yerum ex his magistratus et imperia, pos- 
tremo omnis cura rerum publicarum minime mihi hac 
tempestate cupienda videntur; quoniam neque virtuti 
honos datur; neque illi, quibus per fraudem is fuit, 
utique tuti, aut eo magis honesti sunt. Nam vi qui- 
dem regere patriam aut parentes quamquam et possis, 
et delicta corrigas, tamen importunum est; quum 
praesertim omnes rerum mutationes caedem, fugam, 
aliaque hostilia portendant : frustra autem niti, neque 
aliud se fatigando nisi odium quaerere extremae de- 
mentiae est; nisi forte quern inhonesta et perniciosa 
lubido tenet potentiae paucorum decus atque liber- 
tatem suam gratificari. 

IV. Ceterum ex aliis negotiis quae ingenio exer- 
centur, in primis magno usui est memoria rerum 
gestarum; cujus de virtute quia multi dixere, prae- 
tereundum puto, simul ne per insolentiam quis 
existimet memet studium meum laudando extollere. 



S ALL US Til JUGURTHA. 3 

Atque ego credo fore qui, quia decrevi procul a re 
publica aetatem agere, tanto tamque utili labori meo 
nomen inertiae imponant; certe, quibus maxima in- 
dustria videtur salutare plebem et conviviis gratiam 
quaerere. Qui si reputaverint, et quibus ego tempo- 
ribus magistratus adeptus sim, et quales viri idem 
adsequi nequiverint, et postea quae genera hominum 
in senatum pervenerint, profecto existimabunt me 
magis merito quam ignavia judicium animi mei mu- 
tavisse, maj usque commodum ex otio meo quam ex 
aliorum negotiis reipublicae venturum. Nam saepe 
audivi Q. Maximum, P. Scipionem, praeterea civitatis 
nostrae praeclaros viros solitos ita dicere, " quum ma- 
jorum imagines intuerentur, vehementissime sibi ani- 
mum ad virtutem accendi ; " scilicet non ceram illam, 
neque nguram, tantam vim in sese habere; sed me- 
moria rerum gestarum earn flammam egregiis viris in 
pectore crescere, neque prius sedari, quam virtus 
eorum famam atque gloriam adaequaverit. At contra 
quis est omnium his moribus, quin divitiis et sump- 
tibus, non probitate neque industria cum majoribus 
suis contendat? etiam homines novi, qui antea per 
virtutem soliti erant nobilitatem antevenire, furtim et 
per latrocinia potius quam bonis artibus ad imperia et 
honores nituntur; proinde quasi praetura et consu- 
latus atque alia omnia hujuscemodi per se ipsa clara 
et magnifica sint, ac non perinde habeantur, ut eorum, 
qui ea sustinent, virtus est. Yerum ego liberius alti- 
usque processi, dum me civitatis morum piget taedet- 
que : nunc ad inceptum redeo. 

V. Bellum scripturus sum, quod populus Ro- 
manus cum Jugurtha, rege Numidarum, gessit; pri- 

1—2 



4 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

mum, quia magnum et atrox, variaque victoria fuit; 
dein, quia turn primum superbiae nobilitatis obviam 
itum est; quae contentio divina et humana cuncta 
permiscuit, eoque vecordiae processit, uti studiis civi- 
libus bellum atque vastitas Italiae finem faceret. Sed 
priusquam hujuscemodi rei initium expedio, pauca 
supra repetam ; quo ad cognoscendum omnia illustria 
magis, magisque in aperto sint. Bello Punico secundo, 
quo dux Carthaginiensium Hannibal post magnitudi- 
nem nominis Romani Italiae opes maxime attriverat, 
Masinissa rex Numidarum, in amicitiam receptus a 
P. Scipione, cui postea Africano cognomen ex virtute 
fuit, multa et praeclara rei militaris f acinora fecerat ; 
ob quae victis Cartliaginiensibus et capto Syphace, 
cujus in Africa magnum atque late imperium valuit, 
populus E/Omanus quascumque urbes et agros manu 
ceperat regi dono dedit. Igitur amicitia Masinissae 
bona atque honesta nobis permansit : imperii vitaeque 
ejus finis idem fuit. Dein Micipsa, filius, regnum 
solus obtinuit, Mastanabale et Gulussa fratribus morbo 
absumtis. Is Adherbalem et Hiempsalem ex sese ge- 
nuit, Jugurthamque, Mastanabalis fratris filium, quern 
Masinissa, quod ortus ex concubina erat, privatum 
dereliquerat, eodem cultu, quo liberos suos, domi ha- 
buit. 

YI. Qui ubi primum adolevit, pollens viribus, de- 
cora facie, sed multo maxime ingenio validus, non se 
luxu, neque inertiae corrumpendum dedit; sed, uti 
mos gentis illius est, equitare, jaculari, cursu cum 
aequalibus certare, et quum omnes gloria anteiret, 
omnibus tamen carus esse : ad hoc pleraque tempora 
in venando agere, leonem atque alias feras primus aut 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 5 

in primis ferire, plurimum facere, minimum ipse de 
se loqui. Quibus rebus Micipsa tametsi initio laetus 
fuerat, existimans virtutem Jugurthae regno suo 
gloriae fore, tamen, postquam hominem adolescentem, 
exacta sua aetate et parvis liberis magis magisque 
crescere intelligit, vehementer negotio permotus multa 
cum animo suo volvebat. Terrebat eum natura mor- 
talium avida imperii et praeceps ad explendam animi 
cupidinem, praeterea opportunitas suaeque et libero- 
rum aetatis, quae etiam mediocres viros spe praedae 
transversos agit; ad hoc, studia ISTumidarum in Ju- 
gurtham accensa; ex quibus, si talem virum dolis 
interfecisset, ne qua seditio aut bellum oriretur anxius 
erat. 

VII. His difficultatibus circumventus ubi videt 
neque per vim neque insidiis opprimi posse hominem 
tarn acceptum popularibus, quod erat Jugurtha manu 
promptus et adpetens gloriae militaris, statuit eum ob- 
jectare periculis et eo modo fortunam tentare. Igitur 
bello Numantino Micipsa quum populo Romano equi- 
tum atque peditum auxilia mitteret, sperans vel os- 
tentando virtutem vel hostium saevitia facile eum 
occasurum, praefecit Numidis quos in Hispaniam mit- 
tebat. Sed ea res longe aliter, ac ratus erat, evenit. 
Nam Jugurtha, ut erat impigro atque acri ingenio, 
ubi naturam P. Scipionis, qui turn Romanis imperator 
erat, et morem hostium cognovit, multo labore mul- 
taque cura, praeterea modestissime parendo et saepe 
obviam eundo periculis in tantam claritudinem brevi 
pervenerat, ut nostris vehementer carus, Numantinis 
maximo terrori esset. Ac sane, quod difficillimum in 
primis est, et praelio strenuus erat et bonus consilio ; 



6 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA: 

quorum alteram ex procidentia timorem, alteram ex 
audacia temeritatem adferre plerumque solet. Igitur 
imperator omnes fere res asperas per Jugurtham agere, 
in amicis habere, magis magisque in dies amplecti; 
quippe cujus neque consilium neque inceptum ullum 
frustra erat. Hue accedebat munificentia animi et 
ingenii sollertia, queis rebus sibi multos ex Romanis 
familiari amieitia conjunxerat. 

VIII. Ea tempestate in exercitu nostro fuere 
complures novi atque nobiles, quibus divibiae bono 
honestoque potiores erant, factiosi domi, potentes apud 
socios, clari magis quam honesti, qui Jugurthae non 
mediocrem animum pollicitando accendebant, "si Mi- 
cipsa rex occidisset, fore, uti solus imperii Numidiae 
potiretur : in ipso maximam virtutem, Romae omnia 
venalia esse." Sed postquam Numantia deleta P. 
Scipio dimittere auxilia, ipse reverti domum deerevit, 
donatum atque laudatum magnifice pro concione Ju- 
gurtham in praetorium abduxit ibique secreto monuit. 
rt uti potius publice, quam privatim, amicitiam populi 
R. coleret ; neu quibus largiri insuesceret ; periculose 
a paueis emi, quod multorum esset : si permanere vel- 
let in suis artibus, ultro illi et gloriam et regnum ven- 
turum ; sin properantius pergeret, suamet ipsum pecu- 
nia praecipitem casurum." 

IX. Sic locutus, cum litteris eum, quas Micipsae 
redderet, dimisit: earum sententia haec erat: "Ju- 
gurthae tui bello Numantino longe maxima virtus 
fuit; quam rem tibi certo scio gaudio esse: nobis ob- 
merita carus est; uti idem senatui sit et populo 
Romano, summa ope nitemur. Tibi quidem pro nostra 
amieitia gratulor. En habes virum dignum te atque 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 7 

avo suo Masinissa." Igitur rex ubi ea quae fama 
acceperat, ex litteris imperatoris ita esse cognovit, 
quum virtute viri turn gratia permotus flexit animum 
suum et Jugurtham beneficiis vincere adgressus est; 
statimque eum adoptavit et testamento pariter cum 
filiis heredem instituit. Sed ipse paucos post aimos 
morbo atque aetate confectus quum sibi finem vitae 
adesse intelligeret, coram amicis et cognatis, item 
Adherbale et Hiempsale filiis, dicitur hujuscemodi 
verba cum Jugurtha habuisse. 

X. "Parvum ego, Jugurtha, te, amisso patre, sine 
spe, sine opibus in meum regnum accepi; existimans 
non minus me tibi quam liberis, si genuissem, ob bene- 
ficia carum fore : neque ea res falsum me habuit. 
Nam, ut alia magna et egregia tua omittam, novis- 
sime rediens Numantia meque regnumque meum glo- 
ria honoravisti ; tua virtute nobis Romanos ex amicis 
amicissimos f ecisti ; in Hispania nomen familiae reno- 
vatum est; postremo, quod dinicillimum inter mor- 
tales est, gloria invidiam vicisti. Nunc, quoniam mihi 
natura vitae finem facit, per hanc dextram, per regni 
fidem moneo obtestorque te, uti hos, qui tibi genere 
propinqui, beneficio meo fratres sunt, caros habeas ; 
neu malis alienos adjungere quam sanguine conjunctos 
retinere. Non exercitus neque thesauri praesidia regni 
sunt, verum amici, quos neque armis cogere neque 
auro parare queas : ofiicio et fide pariuntur. Quis 
autem amicior, quam frater fratri ? aut quern alienum 
fidum invenies, si tuis hostis fueris 1 ? Equidem ego 
vobis regnum trado firmum, si boni eritis; sin mali, 
imbecillum. Nam concordia parvae res crescunt, dis- 
cordia maxim ae dilabuntur. Ceterum ante hos te, 



8 SALLUSTIT JUGURTHA. 

Jugurtha, qui aetate et sapientia prior es, ne aliter 
quid eveniat providere decet. Nam in omni certa- 
mine, qui opulentior est, etiamsi accipit injuriam 
tamen quia plus potest, facere videtur. Vos autem, 
Adherbal et Hiempsal, colite, observate talem hunc 
virum, imitamini virtutem, et enitimini, ne ego me- 
liores liberos sumpsisse videar, quam genuisse." 

XL Ad ea Jugurtha, tametsi regem ficta locutum 
intelligebat, et ipse longe aliter animo agitabat, tamen 
pro tempore benigne respondit. Micipsa paucis post 
diebus moritur. Postquam illi more regio justa mag- 
nifice fecerant, reguli in unum convenere, uti inter se 
de cunctis negotiis disceptarent. Sed Hiempsal, qui 
minimus ex illis erat, natura ferox et jam ante igno- 
bilitatem Jugurthae, quia materno genere impar erat, 
despiciens, dextra Adherbalem adsedit ; ne medius ex 
tribus, quod apud Numidas honori ducitur, Jugurtha 
foret. Dein tamen, uti aetati concederet fatigatus a 
fratre, vix in partem alteram transductus est. Ibi 
cum multa de administrando imperio dissererent, Ju- 
gurtha inter alias res jacit: "oportere quinquennii con 
sulta omnia et decreta rescindi ; nam per ea tempora 
confectum annis Micipsam parum animo valuisse." 
Turn idem, Hiempsal, "placere sibi," respondit: "nam 
ipsum ilium tribus proximis annis adoptatione in 
regnum pervenisse." Quod verbum in pectus Ju- 
gurthae altius, quam quisquam ratus erat, descendit. 
Itaque ex eo tempore ira et metu anxius moliri. 
parare; atque ea modo cum animo habere, quibus 
Hiempsal per dolum caperetur. Quae ubi tardius 
procedunt, neque lenitur animus ferox, statuit quovis 
modo inceptum perficere. 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 9 

XII. Primo conventu, quern ab regulis factum 
supra memoravi, propter dissensionem placuerat dividi 
thesauros finesque imperii singulis constitui. Itaque 
tempus ad utramque rem decernitur, sed maturius ad 
pecuniam distribuendam. Reguli interea in loca pro- 
pinqua thesauris, alius alio, concessere. Sed Hiempsal 
in oppido Thirmida forte ejus domo utebatur, qui, 
proximus lictor Jugurthae carus acceptusque semper, 
fuerat; quern ille casu ministrum oblatum promissis 
onerat impellitque, uti tamquam suam visens domum 
eat, portarum claves adulterinas paret ; nam verae ad 
Hiempsalem referebantur; ceterum, ubi res postularet, 
se ipsum cum magna manu venturum. Numida man- 
data brevi confecit atque, ut doctus erat, noctu Ju- 
gurthae milites introducit. Qui postquam in aedes 
irrupere, diversi regem quaerere; dormientes alios, 
alios occursantes interficere; scrutari loca abdita; 
clausa effringere; strepitu et tumultu omnia miscere 
quum Hiempsal interim reperitur, occultans se in 
tugurio mulieris ancillae, quo initio pavidus et ignarus 
loci perfugerat. Numidae caput ejus, uti jussi erant, 
ad Jugurtham ref erunt. 

XIII. Ceterum fama tanti facinoris per omnem 
Af ricam brevi divulgatur ; Adherbalem omnesque, qui 
sub imperio Micipsae f uerant, metus invadit ; in duas 
partes discedunt ; plures Adherbalem sequuntur, sed 
ilium alterum bello meliores. Igitur Jugurtha quam 
maximas potest copias armat; urbes partim vi, alias 
voluntate imperio suo adjungit; omni Numidiae im- 
perare parat. Adherbal, tametsi Homam legatos 
miserat, qui senatum docerent de caede fratris et for- 
tunis suis, tamen, fretus multitudine militum, parabat 



10 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

armis contendere. Sed ubi res ad certamen venit, 
victus ex proelio profugit in provinciam ac deinde 
Romam contendit. Turn Jugurtha, patratis consiliis, 
postquam omnis Numidiae potiebatur, in otio facinus 
suum cum animo reputans, timere popnlum Romanum, 
neque adversus iram ejus usquam nisi in avaritia no- 
bilitatis et pecunia sua spem habere. Itaque paucis 
. diebus cum auro et argento multo Romam mittit, queis 
praecepit, primum uti veteres amicos muneribus ex- 
pleant ; deinde novos acquirant ; postremo quemcum- 
que possint largiendo parare ne cunctentur. Sed' ubi 
Romam legati venere et ex praecepto regis hospiti- 
bus aliisque, quorum ea tempestate auctoritas pollebat, 
magna munera misere tanta commutatio incessit, uti 
ex maxima invidia in gratiam et favorem nobilitatis 
Jugurtha veniret; quorum pars spe, alii praemio inducti, 
singulos ex Senatu ambiendo nitebantur, ne gravius in 
eum consuleretur. Igitur legati ubi satis confidunt, 
die constitute, senatus utrisque datur. Turn Adher- 
balem hoc modo locutum accepimus. 

XI Y. "Patres conscripti, Micipsa pater meus 
moriens praecepit, uti regnum Numidiae tantummodo 
procuratione existimarem meum ; ceterum jus et im- 
perium penes vos esse ; simul eniterer domi militiae- 
que quam maximo usui esse populo Homano ; vos mihi 
cognatorum, vos affinium loco ducerem : si ea f ecissem, 
in vestra amicitia exercitum, divitias, munimenta regni 
me habiturum. Quae quum praecepta parentis mei 
agitarem, Jugurtha, homo omnium quos terra sustinet 
sceleratissimus, contempto imperio vestro, Masinissae 
me nepotem et jam ab stirpe socium et amicum populi 
Homani regno fortunisque omnibus expulit. Atque 



SALLUSTII JUGUBTHA. 11 

ego, Patres eonscripti, quoniam eo miseriarum venturus 
eram, vellem potius ob mea quam ob majoruro bene- 
ficia posse a vobis auxilium petere, ac maxime deberi 
mihi a populo Romano, quibus nop. egerem ; secundum, 
ea si desideranda erant, uti debitis uterer. Sed quo- 
niam parum tuta per se ipsa probitas est, neque mihi 
in manu fuit, Jugurtha qualis foret, ad vos confugi, 
Patres eonscripti, quibus, quod miserrimum est, cogor 
prius oneri quam usui esse. Ceteri reges aut bello 
victi in amicitiam a vobis recepti sunt, aut in suis 
dubiis rebus soeietatem vestram appetiverunt ; f amilia 
nostra cum populo Romano bello Carthaginiensi ami- 
citiam instituit, quo tempore magis fides ejus quam 
fortuna petenda erat. Quorum progeniem vos, Patres 
eonscripti, nolite pati me, nepotem Masinissae, frustra 
a vobis auxilium petere. Si ad impetrandum nihil 
caussae haberem praeter miserandam fortunam, quod 
paullo ante rex, genere, fama atque copiis potens, nunc 
deformatus aerumnis, inops, alienas opes exspecto, ta- 
men erat majestatis populi Romani prohibere injuriam, 
neque pati cujusquam regnum per scelus crescere. 
Yerum ego his finibus ejectus sum, quos majoribus 
meis populus Romanus dedit, unde pater et avus una 
vobiscum expulere Syphacem et Carthaginienses. 
Yestra beneficia mihi erepta sunt, Patres eonscripti ; 
vos in injuria mea despecti estis. Eheu me miserum ! 
Huccine, Micipsa pater, beneficia evasere, uti, quern 
tu parem cum liberis tuis regnique participem fecisti, 
is potissimum stirpis tuae extinctor sit 1 Nunquamne 
ergo familia nostra quieta erit 1 semperne in sanguine, 
ferro, fuga versabimur? Bum Carthaginienses inco- 
lumes fuere, jure omnia saeva patiebamur : hostes ab 



12 SALLUSTII JUGUBTHA. 

latere, vos amici procul, spes omnis in armis erat. 
Postquam ilia pestis ex Africa ejecta est, laeti pacem 
agitabamus ; quippe queis hostis nullus erat, nisi forte 
quern vos jussissetis. Ecce autem ex improviso, Ju- 
gurtha intoleranda audacia, scelere atque superbia sese 
ecferens, fratre meo atque eodem propinquo suo inter- 
fecto, primum regnum ejus sceleris sui praedam fecit; 
post, ubi me iisdem dolis nequit capere, nihil minus 
quam vim aut bellum exspectantem in imperio vestro, 
sicuti videtis, extorrem patria, domo, inopem et co- 
opertum miseriis, effecit, ut ubivis tutius quam in 
meo regno essem. Ego sic existimabam, Patres con- 
scripti, ut praedicantem audiveram patrem meum, qui 
vestram amicitiam colerent, eos multum laborem sus- 
cipere ; ceterum ex omnibus maxime tutos esse. Quod 
in familia nostra f uit, praestitit, uti in omnibus bellis 
vobis adessent ; nos uti per otium tuti simus in manu 
vestra est, Patres conscripti. Pater nos duos fratres 
reliquit ; tertium, Jugurtham, beneficiis suis ratus est- 
nobis conjunctum fore. Alter eorum necatus, alterius 
ipse ego manus impias vix effugi. Quid agam % quo 
potissimum inf elix accedam % Generis praesidia omnia 
extincta sunt : pater, uti necesse erat, naturae con- 
cessit : fratri, quern minime decuit, propinquus per 
scelus vitam eripuit : adnnes, amicos, propinquos 
ceteros, alium alia clades oppressit; capti ab Jugur- 
tha, pars in crucem acti, pars bestiis objecti sunt; 
pauci, quibus relicta est anima, clausi in tenebris cum 
moerore et luctu morte graviorem vitam exigunt. Si 
omnia, quae aut amisi, aut ex necessariis adversa facta 
sunt, incolumia manerent, tamen, si quid ex improviso 
accidisset, vos implorarem, Patres conscripti ; quibus. 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 13 

pro magnitudine imperii, jus et injurias omnes curae 
esse decet. Nunc vero, exsul patria, domo, solus at- 
que omnium honestarum rerum egens, quo accidam, 
aut quos appellam ? nationesne an reges, qui omnes 
f amiliae nostrae ob vestram amicitiam inf esti sunt ? an 
quoquam milii adire licet, ubi non majorum meorum 
hostilia monumenta plurima sint 1 aut quisquam nostri 
misereri potest, qui aliquando vobis hostis fuit? 
Postremo Masinissa nos ita instituit, Patres conscripti, 
ne quern coleremus nisi populum Romanum, ne socie- 
tates, ne foedera nova acciperemus : abunde magna 
praesidia nobis in vestra amicitia fore : si huie imperio 
fortuna mutaretur, una nobis occidendum esse. Yir- 
tute ac dis volentibus magni estis et opulenti : omnia 
secunda et obedientia sunt ; quo facilius sociorum in- 
jurias curare licet. Tantum illud vereor, ne quos 
privata amicitia Jugurthae parum cognita transversos 
agat : quos ego audio maxima ope niti, ambire, fatigare 
vos singulos, ne quid de absente, incognita caussa, 
statuatis ; fingere me verba, f ugam simulare, cui 
licuerit in regno manere. Quod utinam ilium, cujus 
impio facinore in has miserias projectus sum, eadem 
haec simulantem videam ; et aliquando aut apud vos, 
aut apud deos immortales, rerum humanarum cura 
oriatur ! nae ille, qui nunc sceleribus suis ferox atque 
praeclarus est, omnibus malis excruciatus impietatis 
in parentem nostrum, fratris mei necis mearumque 
miseriarum graves poenas reddet. Jam jam f rater, 
animo meo carissime, quamquam tibi immaturo, et 
unde minime decuit, vita erepta est, tamen laetandum 
magis quam dolendum puto casum tuum; non enim 
regnum, sed fugam, exilium, egestatem et omnes has, 



14 SALLUSTII JUGUBTHA. 

quae me premunt, aerumnas cum anima simul amisisti. 
At ego infelix, in tanta mala praecipitatus ex patrio 
regno, reriim humanarum spectaculum praebeo, incer- 
tus quid agam ; tuasne injurias persequar, ipse auxilii 
egens, an regno consulam, cujus vitae necisque potestas 
ex opibus alienis pendet. Utinam emori f ortunis meis 
honestus exitus esset, neu jure contemtus viderer, si 
defessus malis injuriae concessissem. Nunc neque vivere 
lubet, neque mori licet sine dedecore. Patres conscripti, 
per vos,' per liberos atque parentes, per majestatem 
populi E/omani, subvenite misero mihi ; ite obviam in- 
juriae ; nolite pati regnum Numidiae, quod vestrum est, 
per scelus et sanguinem familiae nostrae tabescere." 

XV. Postquam rex finem loquendi fecit, legati 
Jugurthae, largitione magis quam caussa freti, paucis 
respondent : " Hiempsalem ob saevitiam suam ab Numi- 
dis interf ectum : Adherbalem, ultro bellum inf erentem, 
postquam superatus sit, queri, quod injuriam facere 
nequivisset : Jugurtham ab senatu petere, ne alium 
putarent ac ISTumantiae cognitus esset, neu verba ini- 
mici ante facta sua ponerent." Deinde utrique curia 
egrediuntur. Senatus statim consulitur: fautores lega- 
torum, praeterea magna pars gratia depravata, Adher- 
balis dicta contemner e, Jugurthae virtutem extollere 
laudibus : gratia, voce, denique omnibus modis pro 
alieno scelere et flagitio, sua quasi pro gloria, niteban- 
tur. At contra pauci, quibus bonum et aequum divitiis 
carius erat, subveniendum Adherbali, et Hiempsalis 
mortem severe vindicandam censebant ; sed ex omni- 
bus maxime Aemilius Scaurus, homo nobilis, impiger, 
factiosus, avidus potentiae, honoris, divitiarum; cete- 
rum vitia sua callide occultans. Is postquam videt 



SALLUSTII JUGUBTHA. 15 

regis largitionem famosam impudentemque, veritus, 
quod in tali re solet, ne pollnta licentia invidiam ac- 
cenderet, animum a consueta lubidine continuit. 

XYI. Vicit tamen in senatu pars ilia, quae vero 
pretium aut gratiam anteferebat. Decretum fit, uti 
decern legati regnum, quod Micipsa obtinuerat, inter 
Jugurtham et Adherbalem dividerent : cujus lega- 
tionis princeps fuit L. Opimius, homo clarus et turn in 
senatu potens; quia consul C. Graccho et M. Fulvio 
Flacco interf ectis acerrime victoriam nobilitatis in ple- 
bem exercuerat. Eum Jugurtha tametsi E/Omae in 
inimicis habuerat, tamen accuratissime recepit ; dando 
et pollicitando multa perfecit, uti faina, fide, postremo 
omnibus suis rebus commodum regis anteferret. Re- 
liquos legatos eadem via aggressus, plerosque capit; 
paucis carior fides quam pecunia fuit. In divisione 
quae pars Numidiae Mauretaniam attingit, agro viris- 
que opulentior, Jugurthae traditur; illam alteram, 
specie quam usu potiorem, quae portuosior et aedificiis 
magis exornata erat, Adherbal possedit. 

XVII. Res postulare videtur Africae situm paucis 
exponere, et eas gentes, quibuscum nobis bellum aut 
amicitia fuit, attingere. Sed quae loca et nationes ob 
calorem aut asperitatem, item solitudines minus fre- 
quentata sunt, de his haud facile compertum narrave- 
rim ; cetera quam paucissimis absolvam. In divisione 
orbis terrae plerique in partia tertia Africam posuere ; 
pauci tantummodo Asiam et Europam esse ; sed Afri- 
cam in Europa. Ea fines habet ab occidente fretum 
nostri maris et oceani ; ab ortu solis declivem latitu- 
dinem, quern locum Catabatlimon incolae appellant. 
Mare saevum, importuosum; ager frugum fertilis, bonus 



16 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

pecori, arbore inf ecundus ; caelo terraque penuria aqua- 
rum. Genus hominum salubri corpore, velox, patiens 
laborum; plerosque senectus dissolvit, nisi qui ferro 
aut bestiis interiere; nam morbus haud saepe quem- 
quam superat ; ad hoc malefici generis plurima . 
animalia. Sed qui mortales initio Africam habuerint, 
quique postea accesserint, aut quomodo inter se per- 
mixti sint, quamquam ab ea fama, quae plerosque 
obtinet, diversum est, tamen uti ex libris Punicis qui 
regis Hiempsalis dicebantur, interpretatum nobis est, 
utique rem sese habere cultores ejus terrae putant, 
quam paucissimis dicam. Ceterum fides ejus rei penes 
auctores erit. 

XYIII. Africam initio habuere Gaetuli et Libyes, 
asperi incultique; queis cibus erat caro ferina atque 
humi pabulum, uti pecoribus. Hi neque moribus neque 
lege neque imperio cujusquam regebantur; vagi, pa- 
lantes, qua nox coegerat sedes habebant. Sed postquam 
in Hispania Hercules, sicuti Afri putant, interiit, ex- 
ercitus ejus, compositus ex variis gentibus, amisso duce 
ac passim multis sibi quisque imperium petentibus, 
brevi dilabitur. Ex eo numero Medi, Persae et 
Armenii, navibus in Africam transvecti, proximos 
nostro mari locos occupavere. Sed Persae intra ocea- 
num magis ; iique alveos navium inversos pro tuguriis 
habuere, quia neque materia in agris, neque ab His- 
panis emendi aut mutandi copia erat ; mare magnum 
et ignara lingua commercia prohibebant. Hi paullatim 
per connubia Gaetulos secum miscuere, et quia saepe 
tentantes agros alia, deinde alia loca petiverant, semet 
ipsi Nomadas appellavere. Ceterum adhuc aedificia 
ISTumidarum agrestium, quae mapalia illi vocant, ob- 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 17 

longa, incurvis lateribus tecta, quasi navium carinae 
sunt. Medi autem et Armenii accessere Libyes (nam 
hi propius mare Africum agitabant, Gaetuli sub sole 
magis, haud procul ab ardoribus) hique mature oppida 
habuere : nam freto divisi ab Hispania mutare res 
inter se instituerant. Nomen eorum paullatim Libyes 
corrupere, barbara lingua Mauros pro Medis appel- 
lantes. Sed res Persarum brevi adolevit ; ac postea 
nomine JSTumidae, propter multitudinem a parentibus 
digressi, possedere ea loca, quae proxime Carthaginem 
ISTumidia appellatur. Dein utrique, alteris freti, nni- 
timos armis aut metu sub imperium coegere, nomen 
gloriamque sibi addidere; magis hi qui ad nostrum 
mare processerant : quia Libyes, quam Gaetuli, minus 
bellicosi. Denique Africae pars inferior pleraque ab 
Numidis possessa est ; victi omnes in gentem nomen- 
que imperantium concessere. 

XIX. Postea Phoenices, alii multitudinis domi mi- 
nuendae gratia, pars imperii cupidine sollicitata plebe 
et aliis novarum rerum avidis, Hipponem, Hadrume- 
turn, Leptim, aliasque urbes in ora maritima condi- 
dere ; haeque brevi multum auctae, pars originibus suis 
praesidio, aliae decori fuere. Nam de Carthagine silere 
melius puto, quam parum dicere; quoniam alio pro- 
perare tempus monet. Igitur ad Catabathmon, qui 
locus Aegyptum ab Africa dividit, secundo mari prima 
Cyrene est, colonia Therein, ac deinceps duae Syrtes, 
interque eas Leptis ; dein Philaendn arae, quern locum, 
Aegyptum versus, finem imperii habuere Carthagi- 
nienses ; post aliae Punicae urbes. Cetera loca usque 
ad Mauretaniam ]STumidae tenent ; proxime Hispaniam 
Mauri sunt; super IsTumidiam Gaetulos accepimus par- 
jug. 2 



18 SALLUSTI1 JUGURTHA. 

tim in tuguriis, alios incultius vagos agitare ; post eos 
Aethiopas esse ; dein loca exusta solis ardoribus. Igi- 
tur bello Jugurthino pleraque ex Punicis oppida et 
fines Carthaginiensium, quos novissime habuerant, po- 
pulus Romanus per magistratus administrabat; Gaetu- 
lorum magna pars et ISTumidia usque ad fiumen Mu- 
lucham sub Jugurtha erant; Mauris omnibus rex 
Bocchus imperitabat, praeter nomen cetera ignarus 
populi Bomani ; itemque nobis neque bello neque 
pace antea cognitus. De Africa et ejus incolis ad 
necessitudinem rei satis dictum. 

XX. Postquam, diviso regno, legati Africa deces- 
sere, et Jugurtha contra timorem animi praemia sce- 
leris adeptum sese videt, certum ratus, quod ex amicis 
apud Numantiam acceperat, omnia Pomae venal ia esse, 
simul et illorum pollicitationibus accensus, quos paullo 
ante muneribus expleverat, in regnum Adherbalis ani- 
mum intendit. Ipse acer, bellicosus; at is, quern 
petebat, quietus, imbellis, placido ingenio, opportunus 
injuriae, metuens magis quam metuendus. Igitur ex 
improviso fines ejus cum magna manu invadit, multos 
mortales cum pecore atque alia praeda capit, aedificia 
incendit pleraque loca hostiliter cum equitatu accedit ; 
dein cum omni multitudine in regnum suum convertit, 
existimans dolore permotum Adherbalem injurias suas 
manu vindicaturum, eamque rem belli caussam fore. 
At ille, quod neque se parem armis existimabat, et 
amicitia populi Pomani magis quam JSTumidis fretus 
erat, legatos ad Jugurtham de injuriis questum misit ; 
qui tametsi contumeliosa dicta retulerant, prius tamen 
omnia pati decrevit, quam bellum sumere; quia ten- 
tatum antea secus cesserat. Neque tamen eo magis 



SALLUSTII JUGUBTHA. 19 

cupido Jugurthae minuebatur : quippe qui totum ejus 
regnuin animo jam invaserat. Itaque non, ut antea, 
cum praedatoria maim, sed magno exercitu comparato, 
bellum gerere coepit et aperte totius Numidiae im- 
perium petere. Ceterum qua pergebat urbes, agros 
vastare, praedas agere; suis animum, terrorem hostibus 
augere. 

XXI. Adherbal ubi intelligit eo processum, uti 
regnum aut relinquendum esset, aut armis retinen- 
dum, necessario copias parat, et Jugurthae obvius pro- 
cedit. Interim haud longe a mari, prope Cirtam op- 
pidum, utriusque consedit exercitus : et quia die ex- 
tremum erat, proelium non inceptum. Ubi plerumque 
noctis processit, obscuro etiam turn lumine, milites 
Jugurtbini, signo dato, castra hostium invadunt; semi- 
somnos partim, alios arma sumentes fugant fundunt- 
que ; Adherbal cum paucis equitibus Cirtam profugit, 
et ni multitudo togatorum fuisset^ quae Numidas in- 
sequentes moenibus probibuit, uno die inter duos reges 
coeptum atque patratum bellum foret. Igitur Ju- 
gurtba oppidum circumsedit, vineis turribusque et 
machinis omnium generum expugnare aggreditur, 
maxime festinans tempus legatorum antecapere, quos 
ante proelium factum, ab Adherbale Eomam missos 
audiverat. Sed postquam senatus de bello eorum ac- 
cepit, tres adolescentes in Africam legantur, qui ambo 
reges adeant, senatus populique Homani verbis nun- 
cient, "Yelle et censere, eos ab armis discedere ; de 
controversies suis jure potius, quam bello, disceptare ; 
ita seque illisque dignum esse." 

XXII. Legati in Africam maturantes veniunt, 
eo magis, quod Romae, dum proficisci parant, de proelio 

2—2 



20 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

facto et oppugnatione Cirtae audiebatur: sed is rumor 
clemens erat. Quorum Jugurtha accepta oratione re- 
spondit: "Sibi neque majus quidquam neque carius 
auctoritate senati : ab adolescentia ita enisum, uti ab 
optimo quoque probaretur : virtute, non malitia P. 
Scipioni, summo viro, placuisse : ob easdem artes ab 
Micipsa, non penuria liberorum, in regnum adopta- 
tum : ceterum, quo plura bene atque strenue f ecisset, 
eo animum suum injuriam minus tolerare : Adher- 
balem dolis vitae suae insidiatum ; quod ubi compe- 
risset, sceleri obviam isse ; populum Eomarium neque 
recte neque pro bono facturum, si ab jure gentium 
sese prohibuerit : postremo de omnibus rebus legatos 
Romam brevi missurum." Ita utrique digrediuntur. 
Adherbalis appellandi copia non fuit. 

XXIII. Jugurtha, ubi eos Africa decessisse ratus 
est, neque propter loci naturam Cirtam armis expug- 
nare potest, vallo atque fossa moenia circumdat, turres 
exstruit, easque praesidiis firmat : praeterea dies noctes- 
que, aut per vim aut dolis, tentare ; def ensoribus moe- 
nium praemia modo, modo formidinem ostentare; suos 
hortando ad virtutem erigere ; prorsus intentus cuncta 
parare. Adherbal ubi intelligit omnes suas fortunas 
in extremo sitas, hostem infestum, auxilii spem nul- 
lam, penuria rerum necessariarum bellum trabi non 
posse, ex his, qui una Cirtam profugerant, duo max- 
ime impigros delegit, eos multa pollicendo ac mise- 
. rando casum suum confirmat, uti per hostium muni- 
tiones noctu ad proximum mare, dein Eomam per- 
gerent. 

XXI Y. Numidae paucis diebus jussa emciunt; 
litterae Adherbalis in senatu recitatae, quarum sen^ 



SALLUSTII JUGUBTHA. 21 

tentia haec fuit : "JSton mea culpa saepe ad vos oratum 
mitto, Patres conscripti, sed vis Jugurthae subigit; 
quern tanta lubido exstinguendi me invasit, uti neque 
vos, neque deos immortales in animo habeat ; sangui- 
nem meum, quam omnia, malit. Itaque quint tun jam 
mensem socius et amicus populi Romani armis ob- 
sessus teneor; neque milii Micipsae patris benencia, 
neque vestra decreta auxiliantur; ferro, an fame, 
acrius urgear, incertus sum. Plura de Jugurtha scri- 
bere dehortatur me fortuna mea; etiam antea ex- 
pertus sum, parum iidei miseris esse ; nisi tamen in- 
telligo, ilium supra quam ego sum petere, neque 
simul amicitiam vestram et regnum meum sperare : 
utrum gravius existimet, nemini occultum est. Nam 
initio occidit Hiempsalem fratrem meum ; deinde pa- 
trio regno me expulit: — quae sane fuerint nostrae in- 
juriae, nihil ad vos. Verum nunc vestrum regnum 
armis tenet; me, quern vos imperatorem Numidis 
posuistis, clausum obsidet; legatorum verba quanti 
fecerit pericula mea declarant. Quid reliquum, nisi 
vis vestra, quo moveri possit 1 Nam ego quidem vellem 
et haec, quae scribo, et ilia, quae antea in senatu questus 
sum, vana forent potius, quam miseria mea ndem ver- 
bis faceret. Sed quoniam eo natus sum ut Jugurthae 
scelerum ostentui essem, non jam mortem neque 
aerumnas, tantummodo inimici imperium et cruciatus 
corporis deprecor. Regno Numidiae, quod vestrum 
est, uti lubet, consulite; me exmanibus impiis eripite, 
per majestatem imperii, per amicitiae fidem, si ulla 
apud vos memoria remanet avi mei Masinissae." 

XXY. His litteris recitatis fuere, qui exercitum 
in Africam mittendum censerent, et quam primum 



22 SALLUSTII JUGUBTHA. 

Adherbali subveniendum ; de Jugurtha interim uti 
consuleretur, quoniam non paruisset legatis. Sed ab 
iisdem regis fautoribus summa ope enisum, ne tale de- 
cretum fieret. Ita bonum publicum, ut in plerisque 
negotiis solet, privata gratia devictum. Legantur tamen 
in Afrieam majores natu, nobiles, amplis honoribus ; 
in queis M. Scaurus, de quo supra memoravimus, con- 
sularis et tunc in senatu princeps. Hi, quod in in- 
vidia res erat, simul et ab Numidis obsecrati, triduo 
navim ascendere; deinde brevi Uticam appulsi, lit 
teras ad Jugurtham mittunt, " quam ocissime ad pro- 
vinciam accedat; seque ad eum ab senatu missos." Ille 
ubi accepit homines claros, quorum auctoritatem Homae 
pollere audiverat, contra inceptum suum venisse, pri- 
mo commotus, metu atque lubidine diversus agitaba- 
tur. Timebat iram senati, ni paruisset legatis ; porro 
animus cupidine caecus ad inceptum scelus rapiebat. 
Yicit tamen in avido ingenio pravum consilium. Igi- 
tur exercitu circumdato summa vi Cirtam irrumpere 
nititur, maxime sperans diducta manu hostium aut 
vi aut dolis sese casum victoriae inventurum. Quod 
ubi secus procedit, neque quod intenderat efficere 
potest, uti prius quam legatos conveniret Adherbalis 
potiretur, ne amplius morando, Scaurum, quern plu- 
rimum metuebat, incenderet, cum paucis equitibus in 
provinciam venit. Ac, tamen etsi senati verbis minae 
graves nunciabantur, quod oppugnatione non desis- 
teret, multa tamen oratione consumta legati f rustra 
discessere. 

XXVI. Ea postquam Oirtae audita sunt, Italici, 
quorum virtute moenia defensabantur, confisi dedi- 
tione facta propter magnitudinem populi Homani in- 



SALLUSTII JUGUBTHA. 23 

violatos sese fore, Adherbali suadent, uti seque, et 
oppidum Jugurthae tradat ; tantum ab eo vitam pacis- 
catur, de ceteris senatui curae fore. At ille, tametsi 
omnia potiora fide Jugurthae rebatur, quia penes eos- 
dem, si adversaretur, cogendi potestas erat, ita, uti 
censuerant Italici, deditionem facit. Jugurtha in pri- 
mis Adherbalem excruciatum necat ; deinde omnes 
puberes Numidas et negotiatores promiscue, uti quis- 
que armatis obvius fuerat, interf ecit. 

XXVII. Quod postquam Romae cognitum est, et 
res in senatu agitari coepta, idem illi ministri regis 
interpellando ac saepe gratia, interdum jurgiis tra- 
hendo tempus atrocitatem facti leniebant. Ac ni 
0. Memmius, tribunus plebis designatus, vir acer et 
infestus potentiae nobilitatis, populum Romanum edo- 
cuisset id agi, uti per paucos factiosos Jugurthae 
scelus condonaretur, profecto omnis invidia prola- 
tandis consultationibus dilapsa erat : tanta vis gratiae 
atque pecuniae regis. Sed ubi senatus delicti con- 
scientia populum timet, lege Sempronia provinciae fu- 
turis consulibus Numidia atque Italia decretae : con- 
sules declarantur P. Scipio Nasica, L. Bestia Calpur- 
nius : Calpurnio Numidia, Scipioni Italia obvenit : 
deinde exercitus, qui in Af ricam portaretur, scribitur : 
stipendium aliaque, quae bello usui forent, decer- 
nuntur. 

XXVIII. At Jugurtha contra spem nuncio ac- 
cepto, quippe cui Romae omnia venum ire in animo 
haeserat, filium et cum eo duo familiares ad senatum 
legatos mittit ; hisque ut illis, quos Hiempsale inter- 
fecto miserat, praecepit, "omnes mortales pecunia ag- 
grediantur." Qui postquam Romam advenfcabant se 



24 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

natus a Bestia consultus est, "placeretne legatos 
Jugurthae recipi moenibus : " iique decrevere, " nisi 
regnum ipsumqne deditum venissent, uti in diebus 
proximis decern Italia decederent." Consul JSTumidis 
ex senati decreto nunciari jubet : ita inf ectis rebus illi 
domum discedunt. Interim Calpurnius, parato exer- 
citu, legat sibi homines nobiles, factiosos, quorum 
auctoritate quae deliquisset munita fore sperabat; in 
queis fuit Scaurus, cujus de natura et habitu supra 
memoravimus. Nam in consule nostro multae bonae- 
que artes animi et corporis erant, quas omnes avaritia 
praepediebat ; patiens laborum, acri ingenio, satis pro- 
videns, belli haud ignarus, firmissimus contra pericula 
et insidias. Sed legiones per Italiam Hhegium atque 
inde Siciliam, porro ex Sicilia in Africam transvectae. 
Igitur Calpurnius initio paratis commeatibus acriter 
Numidiam ingressus est, multosque mortales et urbes 
aliquot pugnando capit. - 

XXIX. Sed ubi Jugurtha per legatos pecunia 
tentare, bellique, quod administrabat, asperitatem 
ostendere coepit, animus aeger avaritia facile conver- 
sus est. Ceterum socius et administer omnium consi- 
liorum assumitur Scaurus; qui tametsi a principio, 
plerisque ex factione ejus corruptis, acerrime regem 
impugnaverat, tamen magnitudine pecuniae a bono 
honestoque in pravum abstractus est. Sed Jugurtha 
primum tantummodo belli moram redimebat, existi- 
mans sese aliquid interim Homae pretio aut gratia 
effecturum : postea vero quam participem negotii Scau- 
rum accepit, in maximam spem adductus recupe- 
randae pacis statuit cum iis de omnibus pactionibus 
praesens agere. Ceterum interea fidei caussa mittitur 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 25 

a consule Sextius quaestor in oppidum Jugurthae 
Vagam, cujus rei species erat acceptio frumenti, quod 
Calpurnius palam legatis imperaverat ; quoniam dedi- 
tionis mora induciae agitabantur. Igitur rex, uti 
constituerat, in castra venit, ac pauca praesenti consilio 
locutus de invidia facti sui, atque in deditionem uti 
acciperetur, reliqua cum Bestia et Scauro secreta 
transigit; dein postero die, quasi per saturam exquisitis 
sententiis, in deditionem accipitur. Sed, uti pro consilio 
imperatum erat, elephanti triginta, pecus atque equi 
multi cum parvo argenti pondere, quaestori traduntur. 
Calpurnius Eomam ad magistratus rogandos proficisci- 
tur. In Numidia et exercitu nostro pax agitabatur. 

XXX. Postquam res in Africa gestas, quoque 
modo actae forent, fama divulgavit, Homae per omnes 
locos et conventus de facto consulis agitari. Apud 
plebem gravis invidia; Patres solliciti erant; proba- 
rentne tantum fLagitium, an decretum consulis subver- 
terent, parum constabat. Ac maxime eos potentia 
Scauri, quod is auctor et socius Bestiae ferebatur, a 
vero bonoque impediebat. At C. Memmius, cujus de 
libertate ingenii et ddio potentiae nobilitatis supra dixi- 
mus, inter dubitationem et moras senati, concionibus 
populum ad vindicandum hortari; monere, ne rem- 
publicam, ne libertatem suam desererent; multa su- 
perba et crudelia facinora nobilitatis ostendere : pror- 
sus intentus omni modo plebis animum accendebat. 
Sed quoniam ea tempestate Homae Memmii facundia 
clara pollensque fuit, decere existimavi, unam ex tarn 
multis orationem perscribere : ac potissimum ea dicam, 
quae in concione post reditum Bestiae hujuscemodi 
verbis disseruit. 



26 SALLUSTII JUGUBTHA. 

XXXI. "Multa me dehortantur a vobis, Qui- 
rites, ni studium reipublicae omnia superet; opes 
factionis, vestra patientia, jus nullum, ac maxime, , 
quod innocentiae plus periculi quam honoris est. 
Nam ilia quidem piget dicere, his annis XV, quam 
ludibrio fueritis superbiae paucorum ; quam foede, 
quamque inulti perierint vestri defensores ; ut vobis 
animus ab ignavia atque secordia corruptus sit, qui 
ne nunc quidem, obnoxiis inimicis, exsurgitis, atque 
etiam nunc timetis eos, quibus decet terrori esse. Sed 
quamquam haec talia sunt, tamen obviam ire factionis 
potentiae animus subigit : certe ego libertatem, quae 
mihi a parente tradita est, experiar : verum id frustra, 
an ob rem faciam, in vestra manu situm, Quirites. 
Neque ego hortor, quod saepe majores vestri fecere, uti 
contra injurias armati eatis. Nihil vi, nihil secessione 
opus est : necesse est suomet ipsi more praecipites eant. 
Occiso Tiberio Graccho, quern regnum parare aiebant, 
in plebem Homanam quaestiones habitae sunt : post 
C Gracchi et M. Fulvii caedem item vestri ordinis 
multi mortales in carcere necati sunt : utriusque cladis 
non lex, verum lubido eorum nnem fecit. Sed sane 
f uerit regni paratio plebi sua restituere : quidquid 
sine sanguine civium ulcisci nequitur, jure factum sit. 
Superioribus annis taciti indignabamini aerarium ex- 
pilari; reges et populos liberos paucis nobilibus vec- 
tigal pendere ; penes eosdem et summam gloriam, et 
maximas divitias esse : tamen haec talia facinora im- 
pune suscepisse parum habuere : itaque postremo 
leges, majestas vestra, divina et humana omnia hos- 
tibus tradita sunt. Neque eos ; qui ea fecere, pudet 
aut poenitet; sed incedunt per ora vestra magnifice, 



SALLUSTII JUGTJRTHA. 27 

sacerdotia et eonsulatus, pars triunrphos suos osten- 
tantes, perinde quasi ea honori, non praedae habeant. 
Servi aere parati imperia injusta dominorum non per- 
ferunt : vos, Quirites, imperio nati, aequo animo ser- 
vitutem toleratis? At qui sunt hi, qui rempublicam 
occupavere 1 homines sceleratissimi, cruentis manibus, 
immani avaritia, noeentissimi idemque superbissimi \ 
queis fides, decus, pietas, postremo honesta atque in- 
honesta omnia quaestui sunt. Pars eorum occidisse 
tribunos plebis, alii quaestiones injustas, plerique cae- 
dem in vos fecisse pro munimento habent. Ita quam 
quisque pessime fecit, tarn maxime tutus est ; metum 
a scelere suo ad ignaviam vestram transtulere ; quos 
omnes eadem cupere, eadem odisse, eadem metuere in 
unum coegit. Sed haec inter bonos amicitia inter 
malos factio est. Quod si tarn vos libertatis curam 
haberetis, quam illi ad dominationem accensi sunt, 
profecto neque res publica, sicuti nunc, vastaretur, et 
beneficia vestra penes optimos, non audacissimos fo- 
rent. Majores vestri parandi juris et majestatis con- 
stituendae gratia bis per secessionem armati Aven- 
tinum occupavere : vos pro libertate, quam ab illis 
accepistis, non summa ope nitemini? atque eo vehe- 
mentius, quod majus dedecus est, parta amittere, quam 
omnino non paravisse % Dicet aliquis : Quid igitur 
censes? Yindicandum in eos, qui hosti prodidere 
rempublicam % Non manu, neque vi, quod magis vos 
fecisse quam illis accidisse, indignum est, verum quaes- 
tionibus et indicio ipsius Jugurthae ; qui si dediticius 
est, profecto jussis vestris obediens erit; sin ea con- 
temnit, scilicet existimabitis qualis ilia pax aut deditio 
sit, ex qua ad Jugurtham scelerum impunitas, ad 



28 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

paucos potentes maximae divitiae, in rempublicam 
damna atque dedecora pervenerint. Nisi forte non- 
dum etiam vos dominationis eorum satietas tenet, et 
ilia, quam haec tempora, magis placent, quum regna, 
provinciae, leges, jura, judicia, bella atque paces, pos- 
tremo divina et humana omnia penes paucos erant; 
vos autem, hoc est populus B,omanus, invicti ab hosti- 
bus, imperatores omnium gentium, satis habebatis ani- 
mam retinere ; nam servitutem quidem quis vestrum 
recusare audebat ? Atque ego tametsi viro flagitiosis- 
simum existimo impune injuriam accepisse, tamen vos 
hominibus sceleratissimis ignoscere, quoniam cives 
sunt, aequo animo paterer, nisi misericordia in per- 
niciem casura esset. Nam et illis, quantum impor- 
tunitatis habent, parum est impune male fecisse, nisi 
deinde f aciendi licentia eripitur ; et vobis aeterna sol- 
licitudo remanebit, quum intelligetis, aut serviendum 
esse, aut per manus libertatem retinendam. Nam fidei 
quidem aut concordiae quae spes est 1 ? Dominari illi 
volunt, vos liberi esse; facere illi injurias, vos pro- 
hibere : postremo sociis vestris veluti hostibus, hosti- 
bus pro sociis utuntur. Potestne in tarn diversis 
mentibus pax aut amicitia esse 1 Quare moneo hortor- 
que vos ne tantum scelus impunitum omittatis. £fon 
peculatus aerarii factus est, neque per vim sociis 
ereptae pecuniae ; quae, quamquam gravia, tamen con- 
suetudine jam pro rdhilo habentur. Hosti acerrimo 
prodita senati auctoritas, proditum imperium vestrum ; 
domi militiaeque respublica venalis fuit. Quae nisi 
quaesita erunt, ni vindicatum in noxios, quid reliquum, 
nisi ut illis, qui ea fecere, obedientes vivamus'? nam 
impune quae libet facere id est regem esse. Neque 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 29 

ego vos, Quirites, hortor, ut malitis cives vestros per- 
peram, quam recte fecisse, sed ne ignoscendo malis 
bonos perditum eatis. Ad hoc in republica multo 
praestat beneficii quam maleficii immemorem esse : 
bonus tantummodo segnior fit ubi negligas, at malus 
improbior. Ad hoc si injuriae non sint, haud saepe 
auxilii egeas." 

XXXII. Haec atque alia hujuscemodo saepe di- 
cendo Memmius populo persuadet, uti L. Cassius, 
qui turn praetor erat, ad Jugurtham mitteretur, eum- 
que interposita fide publica, Eomam duceret; quo 
facilius, indicio regis, Scauri et reliquorum, quos pe- 
cuniae captae arcessebant, delicta patefierent. Dum 
haec Romae geruntur, qui in ISTumidia relicti a Bestia 
exercitui praeerant, secuti morem imperatoris sui, 
plurima et flagitiosissima facinora fecere. Fuere, qui 
auro corrupti elephantos Jugurthae traderent; alii 
perf ugas vendere ; pars ex pacatis praedas agebant : 
tanta vis avaritiae in amnios eorum, veluti tabes, in- 
vaserat. At Cassius, perlata rogatione a C. Memmio 
ac perculsa omni nobilitate, . ad Jugurtham proficisci- 
tur; eique timido et ex conscientia diffidenti rebus 
suis persuadet : " quoniam se populo Homano dedisset, 
ne vim quam misericordiam ejus experiri mallet." 
Privatim praeterea fidem suam interponit, quam ille 
non minoris quam publicam ducebat : talis ea tempes- 
tate fama de Cassio erat. 

XXXIII. Igitur Jugurtha contra decus regium 
cultu quam maxime miserabili cum Cassio Homam 
venit; ac tametsi in ipso magna vis animi erat, con- 
firmatus ab omnibus, quorum potentia aut scelere 
cuncta ea gesserat, quae supra diximus, C. Baebium 



30 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

tribunum plebis magna mercede parat, cujus impu- 
dentia contra jus et injurias omnes munitus foret. 
At C. Memmius, advocata concione, quamquam regi 
infesta plebes erat, et pars in vincula duci jubebat, 
pars, ni socios sceleris sui aperiret, more majorum, 
de hoste supplicium sumi, dignitati, quam irae magis 
consulens sedare motus et animos eorum mollire; 
postremo confirmare fidem publicam per sese inviola- 
tam fore. Post, ubi silentium coepit, producto Ju- 
gurtha verba facit r Romae Nuinidiaeque facinora ejus 
memorat, scelera in patrem fratresque ostendit : " qui- 
bus juvantibus quibusque ministris ea egerit, quam- 
quam intelligat populus Romanus, tamen velle mani- 
f esta magis ex illo habere ; si vera aperiret, in fide et 
dementia populi Romani magnam spem illi sitam ; 
sin reticeat, non sociis saluti fore, sed se suasque spes 
corrupturum." 

XXXIY. Dein, ubi Memmius dicendi finem 
fecit, et Jugurtha respondere jussus est, 0. Baebius 
tribunus plebis, quern pecunia corruptum supra dixi- 
mus, regem tacere jubet ; ac, tametsi multitudo, quae 
in concione aderat, vehementer accensa, terrebat 
eum clamore, vultu, saepe impetu atque aliis omnibus, 
quae ira fieri amat, vicit tamen impudentia. Ita 
populus ludibrio habitus ex concione discedit ; Jugur- 
thae Bestiaeque et ceteris, quos ilia quaestio exagitabat, 
animi augescunt. 

XXXY. Erat ea tempestate Romae Numida qui- 
dam, nomine Massiva, Gulussae filius, Masinissae 
nepos ; qui, quia in dissensione regum Jugurthae ad- 
versus fuerat, dedita Cirta et Adherbale interfecto 
profugus ex Africa abierat. Huic Sp. Albinus, qui 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 31 

proximo anno post Bestiam cum Q. Municio Rufo 
consulatum gerebat, persuadet, quoniam ex stirpe 
Masinissae sit, Jugurtham ob scelera invidia cum metu 
urgeat, regnum Numidiae ab senatu petat. Avidus 
consul belli gerendi, moveri quam senescere omnia 
malebat : ipsi provincia Numidia, Minucio Macedonia 
evenerat. Quae postquam Massiva agitare coepit, 
neque Jugurthae in amicis satis praesidii est, quod 
eorum alium conscientia, alium mala fama et timor 
impediebat, Bomileari, proximo ac maxime fido sibi, 
imperat, "pretio, sicuti multa confecerat, insidiatores 
Massivae paret, ac maxime occulte ; sin id parum pro- 
cedat, quovis modo Numidam interficiat." Bomilcar 
mature regis mandata exsequitur ; et per homines talis 
negotii artifices itinera egressusque ejus, postremo loca 
atque tempora cuncta explorat ; deinde, ubi res postu- 
labat, insidias tendit. Igitur unus ex eo numero, qui ad 
caedem parati erant paullo inconsultius Massivam ad- 
greditur, ilium obtruncat ; sed ipse deprehensus multis 
hortantibus et in primis Albino consule indicium 
profitetur. Fit reus magis ex aequo bonoque, quam 
ex jure gentium Bomilcar, comes ejus, qui Bomam 
fide publica venerat. At Jugurtha manifestus tanti 
sceleris non prius omisit contra verum niti, quam 
animum advertit supra gratiam atque pecuniam 
suam invidiam f acti esse. Igitur, quamquam in priore 
actione ex amicis quinquaginta vades dederat, regno 
magis quam vadibus consulens clam in Numidiam 
Bomilcarem dimittit, veritus ne reliquos populares 
metus invaderet parendi sibi, si de illo supplicium 
sumtum foret, et ipse paucis diebus profectus est, 
jussus ab senatu Italia decedere. Sed postquam Boma 



32 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

egressus est, fertur saepe eo tacitus respiciens postre- 
mo dixisse, urbem venalem et mature perituram, si 

EMPTOREM INVENERIT ! 

XXXYI. Interim Albinus renovato bello com- 
meatum, stipendium, aliaque quae militibus usui fo- 
rent, maturat in Africam portare ; ac statim ipse pro- 
fectus, uti ante comitia, quod tempus haud longe aberat 
armis aut deditione aut quovis modo bellum con- 
ficeret. At contra Jugurtha trahere omnia ; et alias, 
deinde alias morae caussas faeere : polliceri deditio- 
nem, ac deinde metum simulare : instanti cedere et 
paullo post, ne sui diffiderent, instare : ita belli modo, 
modo pacis mora consulem ludificari. Ac fuere, qui 
turn Albinum haud ignarum consilii regis existima- 
rent, neque ex tanta properantia tarn facile tractum 
bellum secordia magis quam dolo crederent. Sed 
postquam dilapso tempore comitiorum dies adventa- 
bat, Albinus Aulo f ratre in castris pro praetore relicto 
Romam decessit. 

XXXVII. Ea tempestate Romae seditionibus 
tribuniciis atrociter respublica agitabatur. P. Lucul- 
lus et L. Annius, tribuni plebis, resistentibus collegis, 
continuare magistratum nitebantur : quae dissensio 
totius anni comitia impediebat. Ea mora in spem 
adductus Aulus, quern pro praetore in castris relictum 
supra diximus, aut conficiendi belli, aut terrore exer- 
citus ab rege pecuniae capiendae, milites mense Janu- 
ario ex hibernis in expeditionem evocat; magnis iti- 
neribus, hieme aspera, pervenit ad oppidum Suthul, 
ubi regis thesauri erant. Quod quamquam et saevitia 
temporis et opportunitate loci neque capi neque 
obsideri poterat (nam circum murum, situm in prae- 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 33 

rupti montis extremo, planities liinosa hiemalibus aquis 
paludem fecerat,) tamen aut simulandi gratia, quo 
regi formidinem adderet, aut cupidine caecus ob the- 
sauros oppidi potiundi, vineas agere, aggerem jacere, 
aliaque, quae incepto usui forent, properare. 

XXXYIII. At Jugurtha cognita vanitate atque 
imperitia legati subdolus ejus augere amentiam, mis- 
sitare supplicantes legatos; ipse, quasi vitabundus, per 
saltuosa loca et tramites exercitum ductare. Denique 
Aulum spe pactionis perpulit, uti relicto Suthule in 
abditas regiones sese veluti cedentem insequeretur ; 
ita delicta occultiora fore. Interea per homines calli- 
dos die noctuque exercitum tenebat; centuriones 
ducesque turmarum partim uti transfugerent corrum- 
pere, alii signo dato locum uti desererent. Quae post- 
quam ex sententia instruit, intempestate nocte de im- 
proviso multitudine Numidarum Auli castra circum- 
venit. Milites Homani, tumultu perculsi insolito, 
arma capere alii, alii se abdere, pars territos confir- 
mare ; trepidare omnibus locis : vis magna hostium ; 
caelum nocte atque nubibus obscuratum; periculum 
anceps; postremo fugere an manere tutius foret in 
incerto erat. Sed ex eo numero, quos paullo ante 
corruptos diximus, cohors una Ligurum cum duabus 
turmis Thracum et paucis gregariis militibus trans- 
iere ad regem; et centurio primi pili tertiae legionis 
per munitionem, quam, uti defenderet, acceperat, 
locum hostibus introeundi dedit; eaque Numidae 
cuncti irrupere. Nostri foeda fuga, plerique abjectis 
armis proximum collem occupavere. Nox atque prae- 
da castrorum hostes quo minus victoria uterentur 
remorata sunt. Dein Jugurtha postero die cum Ado 
jug. 3 



34 SALLUST1I JUGUBTHA. 

in colloquio verba facit: "tametsi ipsum cum exercitu 
fame, ferroque clausum tenet, tamen se, humanarum 
rerum memorem, si secum foedus faceret, incolumes 
omnes sub jugum missurum : praeterea, uti diebus 
decern Numidia decederet." Quae quamquam gravia 
et nagitii plena erant, tamen, quia mortis metu muta- 
bant, sicuti regi libuerat, pax convenit. 

XXXIX. Sed ubi ea Romae comperta sunt, me- 
tus atque moeror civitatem invasere : pars dolere pro 
gloria imperii ; pars, insolita rerum bellicarum, timere 
libertati : Aulo omnes infesti, ac maxime qui bello 
saepe praeclari fuerant, quod armatus dedecore po- 
tius quam manu salutem quaesiverat. Ob ea consul 
Albinus ex delicto fratris invidiam ac deinde peri- 
culum timens, senatum de foedere consulebat; et 
tamen interim exercitu supplementum scribere; ab 
sociis et nomine Latino auxilia arcessere ; denique 
modis omnibus festinare. Senatus ita, uti par fuerat, 
decernit, suo atque populi injussu nullum potuisse 
foedus fieri. Consul impeditus a tribunis plebis, ne 
quas paraverat copias secum portaret, paucis diebus 
in Africam proficiscitur ; nam omnis exercitus, uti 
convenerat, JSTumidia deductus, in provincia hiemabat. 
Postquam eo venit, quamquam persequi Jugurtham 
et mederi fraternae invidiae animus ardebat, cognitis 
militibus, quos praeter fugam soluto imperio licentia 
atque lascivia corruperat, ex copia rerum statuit sibi 
nihil agitandum. 

XL. Inter ea Bomae C. Mamilius Limetanus tri- 
bunus plebis rogationem ad populum promulgat " uti 
quaereretur in eos, quorum consilio Jugurtha senati 
decreta neglegisset ; quique ab eo in legationibus, aut 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 35 

imperiis pecunias accepissent ; qui elephantos, quique 
perfugas tradidissent; item qui de pace, aut bello, cum 
hostibus pactiones fecissent." /Huic rogationi partim 
conscii sibi, alii ex partium invidia pericula metuentes, 
quoniam aperte resistere non poterant, quin ilia et alia 
talia placere sibi faterentur, occulte per amicos, ac 
maxime per homines nominis Latini et socios Italicos 
impedimenta parabant. Sed plebes incredibile memo- 
ratu est quam intenta fuerit, quantaque vi rogationem 
jusserit, decreverit, volucrit; magis odio nobilitatis, 
cui mala ilia parabantur, quam cura reipublicae : tanta 
lubido in partibus erat. Igitur ceteris metu perculsis 
M. Scaurus, quern legatum Bestiae fuisse supra docui- 
mus, inter laetitiam plebis et suorum fugam, trepida 
etiam turn civitate, quum ex Mamilia rogatione tres 
quaesitores rogarentur, effecerat, uti ipse in eo numero 
crearetur. Sed quaestio exercita aspere violenterque, 
ex rumore et lubidine plebis : ut saepe nobilitatem, 
sic ea tempestate plebem ex secundis rebus insolentia 
ceperat. 

XLI. Ceterum mos partium popularium et senati 
factionum, ac deinde omnium malarum artium paucis 
ante annis Romae ortus est, otio et abundantia earum 
rerum, quae prima mortales ducunt. Nam ante Car- 
thaginem deletam populus et senatus Romanus pla- 
cide modesteque inter se rempublicam tractabant; 
neque gloriae, neque dominationis certamen inter cives 
erat ; metus hostilis in bonis artibus civitatem retine- 
bat. Sed ubi ilia formido mentibus decessit, scilicet 
ea, quae secundae res amant, lascivia atque superbia, 
incessere. Ita quod in adversis rebus optaverant 
otium, postquam adepti sunt, asperius acerbiusque 

3—2 



36 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

fuit. Namque coepere nobilitas dignitatem, populus 
libertatem in lubidinem vertere ; sibi quisque ducere, 
trahere, rapere. Ita omnia in duas partes abstracta 
sunt ; respublica, quae media fuerat, dilacerata. Cete- 
rum nobilitas factione magis pollebat; plebis vis 
soluta atque dispersa in multitudine minus poterat; 
paucorum arbitrio belli domique agitabatur; penes 
eosdem aerarium, provinciae, magistrate, gloriae tri- 
umpliique erant; populus militia atque inopia urge- 
batur; praedas bellicas imperatores cum paucis diripie- 
bant. Interea parentes aut parvi liberi militum, ut 
quisque potentiori confinis erat, sedibus pellebantur. 
Ita cum potentia avaritia sine modo modestiaque in- 
vadere, polluere et vastare omnia; nihil pensi neque 
sancti habere, quoad semet ipsa praecipitavit. Nam 
ubi primum ex nobilitate reperti sunt, qui veram 
gloriam injustae potentiae anteponerent, moveri civi- 
tas, et dissensio civilis quasi permixtio terrae oriri 
coepit. 

XLII. Nam postquam Tiberius et C. Gracchus, 
quorum majores Punico atque aliis bellis multum rei- 
publicae addiderant, vindicare plebem in libertatem et 
paucorum scelera patefacere coepere, nobilitatis noxia 
atque eo perculsa modo per socios ac nomen Latinum, 
interdum per equites Romanos, quos spes societatis a 
plebe dimoverat, Gracchorum actionibus obviam ierat; 
et primo Tiberium, dein paucos post annos eadem in- 
gredientem Caium, tribunum alterum, alterum trium- 
virum coloniis deducendis, cum M. Fulvio Flacco, 
ferro necaverat. Et sane Gracchis cupidine victoriae 
haud satis moderatus animus fuit. Sed bono vinci 
satius est, quam malo more injuriam vincere. Igitur 



SALLUSTII JUGURTIIA. 37 

ea victoria nobilitas ex lubidine sua usa, multos mor- 
tales ferro aut fuga exstinxit; plusque in reliquum 
sibi timoris quam potentiae addidit. Quae res ple- 
rumque magnas civitates pessum dedit; dum alteri 
alteros vincere quovis modo et victos acerbius ulcisci 
volunt. Sed de studiis partium et omnibus civitatis 
moribus si singulatim aut pro magnitudine parem 
disserere, tempus, quam res maturius me deseret. 
Quamobrem ad inceptum redeo. 

XLIII. Post Auli foedus exercitusque nostri 
foedam fugam Q. Metellus et M. Silanus, consules 
designati, provincias inter se partiverant, Metelloque 
Numidia evenerat, acri viro et quamquam adverso 
populi partium fama tamen aequabili et inviolata. Is 
ubi primum magistratum ingressus est, alia omnia sibi 
cum collega ratus, ad bellum, quod gesturus erat, 
animum intendit. Igitur dinidens veteri exercitui, 
milites scribere, praesidia undique arcessere, arma, 
tela, equos, et cetera instrumenta militiae parare, ad 
hoc commeatum affatim; denique omnia, quae bello 
vario et multarum rerum egenti usui esse solent. 
Ceterum ad ea patranda senati auctoritate socii no- 
menque Latinum, et reges ultro auxilia mittere ; pos- 
tremo omnis civitas summo studio adnitebatur. Ita- 
que ex sententia omnibus rebus paratis compositisque, 
in Numidiam proficiscitur magna spe civium, quum 
propter bonas artes, turn maxime, quod adversum divi- 
tias invictum animum gerebat, et avaritia magistra- 
tuum ante id tempus in Kumidia nostrae opes contusae, 
hostiumque auctae erant. 

XLIY. Sed ubi in Africam venit, exercitus ei 
traditur Sp. Albini proconsulis iners, imbellis, neque 



38 S ALIUS Til JUGURTHA 

periculi neque laboris patiens, lingua quam maim 
promptior, praedator ex sociis et ipse praeda hostium, 
sine imperio et modestia habitus. Ita imperatori novo 
plus ex malis moribus sollicitudinis quam ex copia 
militum auxilii aut spei bonae accedebat. Statuit 
tamen Metellus, quamquam et aestivorum tempus 
comitiorum mora imminuerat, et exspectatione eventus 
civium animos intentos putabat, non prius bellum 
adtingere, quam majorum disciplina milites laborare 
coegisset. Nam Albinus, Auli fratris exercitusque 
clade perculsus, postquam decreverat non egredi pro- 
vincia, quantum temporis aestivorum in imperio fuit 
plerumque milites stativis castris habebat, nisi quum 
odos aut pabuli egestas locum mutare subegerat. Sed 
neque muniebantur ea, neque more militari vigiliae 
deducebantur ; uti cuique lubebat ab signis aberat. 
Lixae permixti cum militibus die noctuque vaga- 
bantur, et palantes agros vastare, villas expugnare, 
pecoris et mancipiorum praedas certantes agere ; eaque 
mutare cum mercatoribus vino advectitio et aliis 
talibus ; praeterea frumentum publice datum vendere, 
panem in dies mercari; postremo, quaecumque dici 
aut fingi queunt ignaviae luxuriaeque probra, in illo 
exercitu cuncta fuere, et alia amplius. 

XLY. Sed in ea difficultate Metellum non minus 
quam in rebus hostilibus magnum et sapientem virum 
fuisse comperior, tanta temperantia inter ambitionem 
saevitiamque moderatum. Namque edicto primum ad- 
jumenta ignaviae sustulisse, "ne quisquam in castris 
panem, aut quern alium coctum cibum venderet; ne 
lixae exercitum sequerentur; ne miles gregarius in cas- 
tris neve in agmine servum aut jumentum haberet : " 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 39 

ceteris arte modum statuisse : praeterea transversis 
itineribus quotidie castra movere; juxta ac si hostes 
adessent, vallo atque fossa munire, vigilias crebras 
ponere, et ipse cum legatis circumire : item in agmine 
in primis modo, modo in postremis, saepe in medio 
adesse, ne quisquam ordine egrederetur, uti cum signis 
frequentes incederent, miles cibum et arma portaret. 
Ita prohibendo a delictis, magis quam vindicando ex- 
ercitum brevi confirmavit. 

XL VI. Interea Jugurtha, ubi, quae Metellus 
agebat ex nunciis accepit simul de innocentia ejus 
certior Homae factus, diffidere suis rebus, ac turn de- 
mum veram deditionem facere conatus est. Igitur 
legatos ad consulem cum suppliciis mittit, qui tantum- 
modo ipsi liberisque vitam peterent, alia omnia dede- 
rent populo Romano. Sed Metello jam antea expe- 
rimentis cognitum erat genus Numidarum infidum, 
ingenio mobili, novarum rerum avidum esse. Itaque 
legatos alium ab alio diversos adgreditur; ac, paul- 
latim tentando, postquam opportunos cognovit, multa 
pollicendo, persuadet, "uti Jugurtham, maxime vivum, 
sin id parum procedat, necatum sibi traderent : " ce- 
terum palam, quae ex voluntate forent, regi nunciari 
jubet. Deinde ipse paucis diebus intento atque in- 
festo exercitu in Numidiam procedit; ubi, contra 
belli faciem, tuguria plena hominum, pecora culto- 
resque in agris erant: ex oppidis et mapalibus prae- 
fecti regis obvii procedebant, parati frumentum dare, 
commeatum portare, postremo omnia, quae impera- 
rentur, facere. ISTeque Metellus idcirco minus, sed 
pariter ac si hostes adessent, munito agmine incedere, 
late explorare omnia, ilia deditionis signa ostentui 



40 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

credere, et insidiis locum tentari. Itaque ipse cum 
expeditis cohortibus, item funditorum et sagittario- 
rum delecta manu apud primos erat; in postremo 
C. Marius legatus cum equitibus curabat; in utrum- 
que latus auxiliaries equites tribunis legionum et prae- 
fectis cohortium dispertiverat, uti cum his permixti 
velites, quacumque accederent equitatus hostium, pro- 
pulsarent. Nam in Jugurtha tantus dolus, tantaque 
peritia locorum et militiae erat, uti, absens an prae- 
sens pacem an bellum gerens perniciosior esset in 
incerto haberetur. 

XL VII. Erat haud longe ab eo itinere, quo Me- 
tellus pergebat, oppidum Numidarum, nomine Vaga, 
forum rerum venalium totius regni maxime celebra- 
tum; ubi et incolere et mercari consueverant Italici 
generis multi mortales. Hue consul, simul tentandi 
gratia et, si paterentur, opportunitate loci praesidium 
imposuit; praeterea imperavit frumentum et alia, 
quae bello usui forent, comportare ; ratus, id quod res 
monebat, frequentiam negotiatorum et commeatum 
juvaturum exercitum, et jam pacatis rebus muni- 
mento fore. Inter haec negotia Jugurtha impensius 
modo legatos supplices mittere, pacem orare, praeter 
suam liberorumque vitam, omnia Metello dedere. 
Quos item, uti priores, consul illectos ad proditionem 
domum dimittebat : regi pacem, quam postulabat, 
neque abnuere neque polliceri, et inter eas moras pro- 
missa legatorum exspectare. 

XL VIII. Jugurtha ubi Metelli dicta cum factis 
composuit, ac se suis artibus tentari animadvertit ; 
quippe cui verbis pax nunciabatur, ceterum re bellum 
asperrimum erat, urbs maxima alienata, ager hostibus 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 41 

cognitus, animi popularium tentati; coactus rerum 
necessitudine statuit arniis certare. Igitur explorato 
hostium itinere in spem victoriae adductus ex oppor- 
tunitate loci quam maximas copias potest omnium 
generum parat, ac per tramites occultos exercitum 
Metelli antevenit. Erat in ea parte Numidiae, quam 
Adherbal in divisione possederat, numen oriens a 
meridie, nomine Muthul; a quo aberat mons ferme 
millia passuum xx., tractu pari, vastus ab natura et 
humano cultu : sed ex eo medio quasi collis oriebatur, 
in immensum pertingens, vestitus oleastro ac myrtetis 
aliisque generibus arborum, quae humi arido atque 
arenoso gignuntur. Media autem planities deserta 
penuria aquae, praeter numini propinqua loca : ea 
consita arbustis, pecore atque cultoribus frequenta- 
bantur. 

XLIX. Igitur in eo colle, quern transverso itinere 
porrectum docuimus, Jugurtha extenuata suorum acie 
consedit; elephantis et parti copiarum pedestrium 
Bomilcarem praefecit, eumque edocet, quae ageret; ipse 
propior montem cum omni equitatu et peditibus 
delectis suos collocat. Dein singulas turmas atque 
manipulos circumiens monet atque obtestatur, "uti 
memores pristinae virtutis et victoriae sese regnumque 
suum ab E-omanorum avaritia defendant : cum his 
certamen fore, quos antea victos sub jugum miserint : 
ducem illis, non animum, mutatum : quae ab imperatore 
decuerint, omnia suis provisa ; locum superiorem, uti 
prudentes cum imperitis, ne pauciores cum pluribus, 
aut rudes cum bello melioribus manum consererent; 
proinde parati intentique essent, signo dato, Romanos 
invadere ; ilium diem aut omnes labores et victorias 



42 SALLUSTII JUGUETHA. 

confirmaturum, aut maximarum aerumnarum irdtium 
fore." Ad hoc viritim, uti quemque ob militare f aci- 
nus pecunia aut honore extulerat, commonefacere 
beneficii sui, et eum ipsum aliis ostentare; postremo 
pro cujusque ingenio, pollicendo, minitando, obtestan- 
do alium alio modo excitare ; quum interim Metellus, 
ignarus hostium monte degrediens cum exercitu con- 
spicatur ; primo dubius, quidnam insolita f acies osten- 
deret(nam inter virgulta equi ISTumidaeque consederant, 
neque plane occultati humilitate arborum, et tamen 
incerti, quidnam esset, cum natura loci, turn dolo ipsi 
atque signa militaria obscurati), dein, brevi cognitis 
insidiis, paullisper agmen constituit. Ibi, commutatis 
ordinibus in dextero latere, quod proximum hostes erat, 
triplicibus subsidiis aciem instruxit : inter manipulos 
funditores et sagittarios dispertit; equitatum omnem 
in cornibus locat, ac pauca pro tempore milites hor- 
tatus aciem, sicuti instruxerat, transversis principiis, 
in planum deducit. 

L. Sed, ubi Numidas quietos neque colle degredi 
animadvertit, veritus ex anni tempore et inopia aquae, 
ne siti conficeretur exercitus, Rutilium legatum cum 
expeditis cohortibus et parte equitum praemisit ad 
numen, uti locum castris antecaperet, existimans, 
hostes crebro impetu et transversis praeliis iter suum 
remoraturos, et quoniam armis dimderent, lassitudi- 
nem et sitim militum tentaturos. Dein ipse pro re 
atque loco, sicuti monte descenderat, paullatim pro- 
cedere ; Marium post principia habere; ipse cum sinis- 
trae alae equitibus esse, qui in agmine principes facti 
erant. At Jugurtha, ubi extremum agmen Metelli pri- 
mos suos praetergressum videt praesidio quasi duum 



SALLU8TII JUGURTHA. 43 

mil Hum peditum montem occupat, qua Metellus descen- 
derat ; ne forte cedentibus adversariis receptui ac post 
munimento f oret : dein repente, signo dato, hostes inva- 
dit. Numidae alii postremos caedere, pars a sinistra ac 
dextera tentare, infensi adesse atque instare, omnibus 
locis Romanorum ordines conturbare ; quorum etiam 
qui firmioribus animis obvii hostibus fuerant ludincati 
incerto praelio ipsi modo eminus sauciabantur, neque 
contra feriendi aut manum conserendi copia erat. 
Antea jam docti ab Jugurtha equites, ubicumque 
Romanorum turba insequi coeperat, non cOnfertim, 
neque in unum sese recipiebant, sed alius alio quam 
maxime diversi. Ita numero priores si ab perse- 
quendo hostes deterrere nequiverant, disjectos ab tergo, 
aut lateribus circumveniebant \ sin opportunior f ugae 
collis quam campi fuerant, ea vero consueti Numida- 
rum equi facile inter virgulta evadere ; nostros aspe- 
ritas et insolentia loci retinebant. 

LI. Ceterum facies totius negotii varia, incerta, 
f oeda, atque miserabilis ; dispersi a suis pars cedere, 
alii insequi; neque signa neque ordines observare; 
ubi quemque periculum ceperat, ibi resistere ac pro- 
pulsare ; arma, tela, equi, viri, hostes, cives permixti ; 
nihil consilio neque imperio agi; fors omnia regere. 
Itaque multum diei processerat, quum etiam turn even- 
tus in incerto erat. Denique omnibus labore et aestu 
languidis, Metellus, ubi videt Numidas minus instare, 
paullatim milites in unum conducit, ordines restituit, et 
cohortes legionarias quatuor adversum pedites hostium 
collocat. Eorum magna pars superioribus locis fessa 
consederat. Simul orare, hortari milites, " ne defice- 
rent, neu paterentur hostes f ugientes vincere ; neque 



44 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

illis castra esse, neque munimentum ullum quo ce- 
dentes tenderent : in armis omnia sita." Sed ne Ju- 
gurtha quidem interea quietus; circumire, hortari, 
renovare proelium, et ipse cum delectis tentare omnia 3 
subvenire suis, hostibus dubiis instare, quos firmos 
cognoverat, eminus pugnando retinere. 

LII. Eo modo inter se duo imperatores, summi 
viri, certabant ; ipsi pares, ceterum opibus disparibus. 
Nam Metello virtus militum erat, locus adversus; 
Jugurthae alia omnia praeter milites opportuna. De- 
nique Romani, ubi intelligunt neque sibi perfugium 
esse, neque ab hoste copiam pugnandi fieri, et jam 
die vesper erat; adverso colle, sicuti praeceptum fuerat, 
evadunt. Amisso loco ISTumidae f usi f ugatique : pauci 
interiere ; plerosque velocitas et regio hostibus ignara 
tutata sunt. Interea Bomilcar, quern elephantis et 
parti copiarum pedestrium praefectum ab Jugurtha 
supra diximus, ubi eum Rutilius praetergressus est, 
paullatim suos in aequum locum deducit ; ac, dum 
legatus ad flumen, quo praemissus erat, festinans pergit, 
quietus, uti res postulabat, aciem exornat, neque re- 
mittit, quid ubique hostis ageret, explorare. Postquam 
Rutilium consedisse jam et animo vacuum accepit, 
simulque ex Jugurthae proelio clamorem augeri, veritus 
ne legatus cognita re laborantibus suis auxilio foret, 
aciem, quam diffidens virtuti militum arete statuerat, 
quo hostium itineri ofliceret, latius porrigit, eoque 
modo ad Hutilii castra procedit. 

LIII. Romani ex improviso pulveris vim magnam 
animadvertunt, nam prospectum ager arbustis consitus 
prohibebat ; et primo rati humum aridam vento agi- 
tari post ubi aequabilem manere, et sicuti acies move- 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 45 

batur magis magisque adpropinquare vident, cognita 
re properantes arma capiunt, ac pro castris, sicuti 
imperabatur, consistunt. Deinde, ubi propius ventum 
est, utrimque magno clamore concurritur. ISTumidae 
tantummodo remorati, dum in elephantis auxilium pu- 
tant, postquam eos impeditos ramis arborum atque ita 
disjectos circumveniri vident, fugam faciunt, ac pleri- 
que, abjectis armis collis aut noctis, quae jam aderat, 
auxilio integri abeunt. Elephanti quatuor capti, re- 
liqui omnes, numero quadraginta, interfecti. At ~Ro- 
mani quamquam itinere atque opere castrorum et proe- 
lio fessi lassique erant, tamen, quod Metellus amplius 
opinione morabatur, instructi intentique obviam pro- 
cedunt ; nam dolus ISTumidarum nihil languidi neque 
remissi patiebatur. Ac primo obscura nocte, postquam 
haud procul inter se erant, strepitu, velut hostes, adven- 
tare, alteri apud alteros formidinem simul et tumultum 
facere; et paene imprudentia admissum f acinus mise- 
rabile,ni utrimque praemissi equites rem exploravissent. 
Igitur pro metu repente gaudium exortum; milites 
alius alium laeti appellant, acta edocent atque audiunt ; 
sua quisque fortia facta ad caelum ferre. Quippe res 
humanae ita sese habent : in victoria vel ignavis glo- 
riari licet ; adversae res etiam bonos detractant. 

LIY. Metellus in isdem castris quatriduo mora- 
tus saucios cum cura rencit, meritos in proeliis more 
militiae donat, universos in concione laudat atque agit 
gratias ; hortatur, ad cetera, quae levia sunt, parem 
animum gerant; pro victoria satis jam pugnatum, 
reliquos labores pro praeda fore. Tamen interim trans- 
fugas et alios opportunos, Jugurtha ubi gentium aut 
quid agitaret, cum paucisne esset, an exercitum habe- 



46 SALLUSTII JUGUBTHA. 

ret, uti sese victus gereret, exploratum misit. At 
ille sese in loca saltuosa et natura munita receperat ; 
ibique cogebat exercitum numero hominum ampliorem, 
sed hebetem infirmumque, agri ac pecoris magis quam 
belli cultorem. Id ea gratia eveniebat, quod praeter 
regios equites nemo omnium Numidarum ex fuga 
regem sequitur; quo cuj usque animus fert, eo disce- 
dunt ; neque id nagitium militiae ducitur ; ita se mores 
habent. Igitur Metellus ubi videt regis etiam turn 
animum ferocem esse; bellum renovari, quod nisi ex 
illius lubidine geri non posset ; praeterea iniquum cer- 
tamen sibi cum hostibus, minore detrimento illos vinci, 
quam suos vincere; statuit non proeliis neque acie, 
sed alio more bellum gerendum. Itaque in Numidiae 
loca opulentissima pergit, agros vastat, multa castella 
et oppida temere munita aut sine praesidio capit in- 
cenditque ; puberes interiici jubet, alia omnia militum 
praedam esse. Ea formidine multi mortales Romanis 
dediti obsides; frumentum et alia,- quae usui forent, 
adfatim praebita; ubicumque res postulabat, praesidium 
impositum. Quae negotia multo magis quam proelium 
male pugnatum ab suis regem terrebant ; quippe, cui 
spes omnis in fuga sita erat, sequi cogebatur, et qui 
sua loca def endere nequiverat, in alienis bellum gerere. 
Tamen ex copia quod optimum videbatur consilium 
capit; exercitum pier um que in iisdem locis opperiri 
jubet, ipse cum delectis equitibus Metellum sequitur ; 
nocturnis et aviis itineribus ignoratus Homanos palan- 
tes repente adgreditur. Eorum plerique inermes ca- 
dunt, multi capiuntur, nemo omnium intactus profu- 
git, et ]STumidae prius quam ex castris subveniretur, 
sicuti jussi erant, in proximos colles discedunt. 



SALLUSTII JUGUMTHA. 47 

LV, Interim Romae gaudium ingens ortum cog- 
nitis Metelli rebus ; ut seque et exercitum more majo- 
rum gereret, in adverso loco, victor tamen virtute 
fuisset, hostium agro potiretur, Jugurtham magnifi- 
cum ex Auli secordia spem salutis in solitudine aut 
fuga coegisset habere. Itaque senatus ob ea feliciter 
acta dis immortalibus supplicia decernere, civitas 
trepida antea et sollicita de belli eventu laeta agere, 
de Metello fama praeclara esse. Igitur eo intentior 
ad victoriam niti, omnibus modis festinare; cavere 
tamen, necubi hosti opportunus neret, meminisse, post 
gloriam invidiam sequi. Ita, quo clarior, eo magis 
animi anxius erat, neque post insidias Jugurthae 
effuso exercitu praedari; ubi frumento aut pabulo opus 
erat, cohortes cum omni equitatu praesidium agitabant; 
exercitus partem ipse, reliquos Marius ducebat. Sed 
igni magis, quam praeda, ager vastabatur. Duobus 
locis haud longe inter se castra faciebant; ubi vi 
opus erat, cuncti aderant; ceterum, quo fuga atque 
formido latius cresceret, diversi agebant. Eo tempore 
Jugurtha per colles sequi, tempus aut locum pugnae 
quaerere, qua venturum hostem audierat, pabulum 
et aquarum fontes, quorum penuria erat, corrumpere, 
modo se Metello, interdum Mario ostendere, postre- 
mos in agmine tentare, ac statim in colles regredi; 
rursus aliis, post aliis minitari, neque proelium fa- 
cere, neque otium pati, tantummodo hostem ab in- 
cepto retinere. 

LVL Romanus imperator ubi se dolis fatigari 
videt, neque ab hoste copiam pugnandi fieri, urbem 
magnam et in ea parte, qua sita erat, arcem regni, 
nomine Zamam, statuit oppugnare ; ratus, id quod ne- 



48 SALLUSTII JUGUETHA. 

gotium poscebat, Jugurtham laborantibus suis auxilio 
venturum, ibique proelium fore. At ille, quae para- 
bantur, a perf ugis edoctus, magnis itineribus Metellum 
antevenit, oppidanos hortatur, moenia defendant, ad- 
ditis auxilio perfugis, quod genus ex copiis regis, quia 
f allere nequibat, firmissimum erat ; praeterea pollicetur 
in tempore semet cum exercitu affore. Ita compositis 
rebus in loca quam maxime occulta discedit, ac post 
paullo cognoscit Marium ex itinere frumentatum cum 
paucis cohortibus Siccam missum; quod oppidum pri- 
mum omnium post malam pugnam ab rege defeeerat. 
Eo cum delectis equitibus noctu pergit, et jam egredi- 
entibus Romanis in po$ta pugnam facit ; simul magna 
voce Siccenses hortatur, "uti cohortes ab tergo circum- 
veniant; fortunam praeclari facinoris casum dare 3 si id 
fecerint, postea sese in regno, illos in libertate sine 
metu aetatem acturos." Ac ni Marius signa inferre 
atque evadere oppido properavisset, profecto cuncti 
aut magna pars Siccensium fidem mutavissent : tanta 
mobilitate sese Numidae agunt. Sed milites Jugur- 
thini, paullisper ab rege sustentati, postquam majore 
vi hostes urgent, paucis amissis profugi discedunt. 

LVII. Marius ad Zamam pervenit : id oppidum, 
in campo situm, magis opere quam natura munitum 
erat ; nullius idoneae rei egens, armis virisque opulen- 
tum. Igitur Metellus pro tempore atque loco paratis 
rebus cuncta moenia exercitu circumvenit; iegatis 
imperat, ubi quisque curaret 3 deinde signo dato undi- 
que simul clamor ingens oritur : neque ea res Kumidas 
terret ; inf ensi intentique sine tumultu manent : proe- 
lium incipitur. Romani, pro ingenio quisque, pars 
eminus glande aut lapidibus pugnare, alii succedere, 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 49 

ac murum modo subfodere, modo scalis aggredi ; cu- 
pere proelium [in] manibus facere. Contra ea oppidani 
in proximos saxa volvere, sudes, pila, praeterea pice 
et sulphure taedam mixtam ardenti mittere. Sed ne 
illos quidem, qui procul manserant, timor animi satis 
muniverat; nam plerosque jacula tormentis aut manu 
emissa vulnerabant ; parique periculo, sed f ama impari 
boni atque ignavi erant. 

LY III. Dum apud Zamam sic certatur, Jugurtha 
ex improvise- castra hostium cum magna manu invadit ; 
remissis, qui in praesidio erant, et omnia magis quam 
proelium exspectantibus, portam irrumpit. At nostri, 
repentino metu perculsi, sibi quisque pro moribus 
consulunt ; alii fugere, alii arma capere ; magna pars 
vulnerati, aut occisi. Ceterum ex omni multitudine 
non amplius quadraginta memores nominis Romani 
grege facto locum cepere paullo quam alii editiorem : 
neque inde maxima vi depelli quiverunt, sed tela 
eminus missa remittere, pauci in pluribus minus frus- 
trati ; sin Numidae propius accessissent, ibi vero virtu- 
tem ostendere et eos maxima vi caedere, f undere atque 
f ugare. Interim Metellus, quum acerrime rem gereret, 
clamorem hostilem ab tergo accepit ; deinde converso 
equo animadvertit f ugam ad se versum fieri ; quae res 
indicabat populares esse. Igitur equitatum omnem ad 
castra propere mittit, ac statim C. Marium cum cohor- 
tibus sociorum ; eumque, lacrimans, per amicitiam 
perque rempublicam obsecrat, ne quam contumeliam 
remanere in exercitu victore, neve hostes inultos abire 
sinat : ille brevi mandata efiicit. At Jugurtha muni- 
mento castrorum impeditus, quum alii super vallum 
praecipitarentur, alii in angustiis ipsi sibi properantes 
jug. 4 



50 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

officerent, multis amissis in loca inunita sese recepit. 
Metellus, infecto negotio, postquam nox aderat, in 
castra cum exercitu revertitur. 

LIX. Igitur postero die, prius quam ad oppug- 
nandum egrederetur, equitatum omnem in ea parte, 
qua regis adventus erat, pro castris agitare jubet; 
portas et proxima loca tribunis dispertit ; deinde ipse 
pergit ad oppiduni atque, ut superiore die, murum 
aggreditur. Interim Jugurtha ex occulto repente 
nostros invadit : qui in proximo locati fuerant, paul- 
lisper territi perturbantur \ reliqui cito subveniunt. 
JSTeque diutius ]STumidae resistere quivissent, ni pedites 
cum equitibus permixti magnam dadem in congressu 
facerent: quibus illi freti, non, ut equestri praelio 
solet, sequi, dein cedere ; sed adversis equis concurrere, 
implicare ac perturbare aciem ; ita expeditis peditibus 
suis hostes paene victos dare. 

LX. -Eodem tempore apud Zamam magna vi cer- 
tabatur. Ubi quisque legatus aut tribunus curabat, 
eo acerrime niti ; neque alius in alio magis quam in 
sese spem habere; pariterque oppidani agere, oppug- 
nare, aut parare omnibus locis, avidius alteri alteros 
sauciare, quam semet tegere ; clamor permixtus hor- 
tatione, laetitia, gemitu, item strepitus armorum ad 
caelum f erri ; tela utrimque volare. Sed illi, qui moe- 
nia defensabant, ubi hostes paullum modo pugnam 
remiserant, intenti proelium equestre prospectabant : 
eos, uti quaeque Jugurthae res erant, laetos modo, 
modo pavidos, animadverteres ; ac, sicuti audiri a suis 
aut cerni possent, monere alii, alii hortari, aut manu 
significare, aut niti corporibus, et ea hue illuc, quasi 
vitabuncli aut jacientes tela, agitare. Quod ubi Mario 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 51 

cognitum est (nam is in ea parte curabat), consulto 
lenius agere ac diffidentiam rei simulare ; pati Numi- 
das sine tumultu regis proelium visere. Ita illis studio 
suorum adstrictis, repente magna vi murum aggreditur : 
et jam scalis aggressi milites prope summa ceperant, 
cum oppidani concurrunt, lapides, ignem, alia praeterea 
tela ingerunt. Nostri primo resistere; deinde, ubi 
unae atque alterae scalae comminutae, qui super- 
steterant afflicti sunt; ceteri, quoquo modo potuere, 
pauci integri, magna pars confecti vulneribus, abeunt. 
Denique utrimque proelium nox diremit 

LXI. Metellus postquam videt frustra inceptum, 
neque oppidum capi, neque Jugurtham, nisi ex insi- 
diis aut suo loco pugnam facere, et jam aestatem ex- 
actam esse, ab Zama discedit, et in his urbibus, quae 
ad se defecerant satisque munitae loco aut moenibus 
erant, praesidia imponit. Ceterum exercitum in pro- 
vinciam, quae proxima est Numidiae, hiemandi gratia 
collocat. Neque id tempus ex aliorum more quieti 
aut luxuriae concedit, sed quoniam armis bellum pa- 
rum procedebat, insidias regi per amicos tendere et 
eorum perndia pro armis uti parat. Igitur Bomilca- 
rem, qui Romae cum Jugurtha fuerat, et hide vadibus 
datis clam de Massivae nece judicium fugerat, quod 
ei per maximam amicitiam maxima copia fallendi 
erat, multis pollicitationibus aggreditur ; ac primo ef- 
ficit, uti ad se colloquendi gratia occultus veniat ; de- 
inde, fide data, "si Jugurtham vivum aut necatum 
tradidisset, fore, ut illi senatus impunitatem et sua 
omnia concederet," facile Numidae persuadet, quum 
ingenio infido, turn metuenti ne, si pax cum Homanis 
fieret, ipse per condiciones ad supplicium traderetur. 

. 4—2 



52 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

LXII. Is, ubi primum opportunum fuit, Jugur- 
tham anxium ac miserantem fortunas suas accedit; 
monet atque lacrimans obtestatur, "uti aliquando sibi 
liberisque et genti Numidarum, optime merenti, pro- 
videat; omnibus proeliis sese victos, agrum vasta- 
tum, multos mortales captos ant occisos, regni opes 
comminntas esse ; satis saepe jam et virtntem militum 
et fortnnam tentatam ; caveat ne illo cnnctante Nu- 
midae sibi consnlant." His atque talibns aliis ad de- 
ditionem regis animum impellit. Mittnntnr ad impe- 
ratorem legati, qui Jugnrtham imperata facturum 
dicerent, ac sine ulla pactione sese regnumque suum 
in illius iidem tradere. Metellus propere cunctos 
senatorii ordinis ex hibernis accersiri jubet: eorum 
atque aliorum, quos idoneos ducebat, consilium habet. 
Ita more majorum ex consilii decreto per legatos 
Jugurthae imperat argenti pondo ducenta millia, ele- 
phantos omnes, equorum et armorum aliquantum. 
Quae postquam sine mora facta sunt, jubet omnes 
perfugas vinctos adduci ; eorum magna pars, ut jussum 
erat, adducti ; pauci, quum primum deditio coepit, ad 
regem Bocchum in Mauretaniam abierant. /\ Igitur 
Jugurtha, ubi armis virisque et pecunia spoliatus est, 
quum ipse ad imperandum Tisidium vocaretur, rursus 
coepit flectere animum suum, et ex mala conscientia 
digna timere. Denique multis diebus per dubitationem 
consumptis, quum modo taedio rerum adversarum 
omnia bello potiora duceret, interdum secum ipse repu- 
taret, quam gravis casus in servitium ex regno foret, 
multis magnisque praesidiis nequidquam perditis de 
integro bellum sumit. Homae senatus de provinciis 
consultus Numidiam Metello decreverat. 



SALLUSTII JUGUBTHA. 53 

LXIII. Per idem tempus Uticae forte 0. Mario 
per hostias diis supplicanti "magna atque mirabilia 
portendi " haruspex dixerat : " proinde quae animo agi- 
tabat, fretus dis ageret, fortunam quam saepissime ex- 
periretur; cuncta prospera eventura." At ilium jam 
antea consulatus ingens cupido exagitabat; ad quern 
capiendum praeter vetustatem familiae alia omnia 
abunde erant ; industria, probitas, militiae magna sci- 
entia ; animus belli ingens, domi modicus, lubidinis et 
divitiarum victor, tantummodo gloriae avidus. Sed is 
natus et omnem pueritiam Arpini altus, ubi primum 
aetas militiae patiens fuit, stipendiis faciendis, non 
Graeca f acundia neque urbanis munditiis sese exercuit : 
ita inter artes bonas integrum ingenium brevi adolevit. 
Ergo ubi primum tribunatum militarem a populo petit, 
plerisque faciem ejus ignorantibus, facile notus per 
omnes tribus declaratur. Deinde ab eo magistratu 
alium post alium sibi peperit ; semperque in potestati- 
bus eo modo agitabat, uti ampliore, quam gerebat 
dignus haberetur. Tamen is ad id locorum talis vir 
(nam postea ambitione praeceps datus est), petere non 
audebat: etiam turn alios magistratus plebes, consu- 
latum nobilitas inter se per manus tradebat : novus 
nemo tarn clarus neque tarn egregiis factis erat, quin is 
indignus illo honore, et quasi pollutus, haberetur. 

LXI Y. Igitur ubi Marius haruspicis dicta eodem 
intendere videt, quo cupido animi hortabatur, ab Me- 
tello petendi gratia missionem rogat : cui quamquam 
virtus, gloria, atque alia optanda bonis, superabant, 
tamen inerat contemtor animus et superbia, commune 
nobilitatis malum. Itaque primum commotus insolita 
re mirari ejus consilium, et quasi per amicitiam mo- 



54 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

nere, "ne tarn prava inciperet, neu super fortunam 
animum gereret ; non omnia omnibus cupienda esse ; 
debere illi res suas satis placere ; postremo caveret id 
petere a populo Romano, quod illi jure negaretur." 
Postquam haec atque alia talia dixit, neque animus 
Marii ilectitur, respondit, " ubi primum potuisset per 
negotia publica, facturum sese quae peteret." Ac 
postea saepius eadem postulanti fertur dixisse, " ne 
f estinaret abire : satis mature ilium cum filio suo con- 
sulatum petiturum." Is eo tempore contubernio patris 
ibidem militabat, annos natus circiter xx. Quae res 
Marium, quum pro honore, quern adfectabat, turn 
contra Metellum, vehementer accenderat. Ita cupidine 
atque ira, pessimis consultoribus, grassari ; neque facto 
ullo neque dicto abstinere, quod modo ambitiosum 
foret ; milites, quibus in hibernis praeerat, laxiore im- 
perio, quam antea habere ; apud negotiatores, quorum 
magna multitudo Uticae erat, criminose simul et mag- 
nifice de bello loqui : " dimidia pars exercitus sibi per- 
mitteretur, paucis diebus Jugurtham in catenis habi- 
turum ; ab imperatore consulto trahi, quod homo inanis 
et regiae superbiae imperio nimis gauderet." Quae 
omnia illis eo firmiora videbantur, quod diuturnitate 
belli res f amiliares corruperant, et animo cupienti nihil 
satis festinatur. 

LXY. Erat praeterea in exercitu nostro Numida 
quidam, nomine Gauda, Mastanabalis filius, Masinissae 
nepos, quern Micipsa testamento secundum heredem 
scripserat, morbis confectus et ob earn caussam mente 
paullum imminuta. Cui Metellus petenti more re- 
gum uti sellam juxta poneret, item postea custodiae 
caussa turmam equitum Komanorum, utrumque nega- 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 55 

verat ; honorem, quod eorum modo foret, quos populus 
Romanus reges appellavisset ; praesidium, quod contu- 
meliosum in eos foret, si equites Romani satellites 
Numidae traderentur. Hunc Marius anxium aggre- 
ditur, atque hortatur, uti contumeliarum imperatoris 
cum suo auxilio poenas petat: hominem ob morbos 
animo parum valido secunda oratione extollit : " ilium 
regem, ingentem virum, Masinissae nepotem esse : si 
Jugurtha captus aut occisus foret, imperium Numidiae 
sine mora habiturum : id adeo mature posse evenire, si 
ipse consul ad id bellum missus foret." Itaque et ilium 
et equites Romanos, milites et negotiatores, alios ipse, 
plerosque spes pacis impellit, uti Eomam ad suos ne- 
cessarios aspere in Metellum de bello scribant, Marium 
imperatorem poscant. Sic illi a multis mortalibus 
honestissima suffragatione consulatus petebatur : simul 
ea tempestate plebes, nobilitate fusa per legem Mami- 
liam, novos extollebat. Ita Mario cuncta procedere. 

LXYI. Interim Jugurtha, postquam omissa de- 
ditione bellum incipit, cum magna cura parare omnia, 
festinare, cogere exercitum ; civitates, quae ab se def e- 
cerant, formidine, aut ostentando praemia, affectare; 
communire suos locos ; arma, tela, alia, quae spe pacis 
amiserat, reficere, aut commercari ; servitia Roma- 
norum allicere, et eos ipsos, qui in praesidiis erant, 
pecunia tentare ; prorsus nihil intactum neque quietum 
pati ; cuncta agitare. Igitur Yagenses, quo Metellus 
initio, Jugurtha pacificante, praesidium imposuerat, 
f atigati regis suppliciis, neque antea voluntate alienati, 
principes civitatis inter se conjurant : nam vulgus, uti 
plerumque solet, et maxime Numidarum, ingenio mo- 
bili, seditiosum atque discordiosum erat, cupidum no- 



56 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

varum rerum, quieti et otio adversum. Dein, coni- 
positis inter se rebus, in diem tertium constituunt, 
quod is festus celebratusque per omnem Africam lu- 
dum et lasciviam magis quam formidinem ostentabat. 
Sed, ubi tempus f uit, centuriones tribunosque militares, 
et ipsum praefectum oppidi T. Turpilium Silanum, 
alius alium domos suas invitant ; eos omnes, praeter 
Turpilium, inter epulas obtruncant; postea milites 
palantes, inermes, quippe in tali die ac sine imperio, 
aggrediuntur. Idem plebes facit, pars edocti ab no- 
bilitate, alii studio taHuin rerum incitati, queis acta 
consiliumque ignorantibus tumultus ipse et res novae 
satis placebant. 

LXYII. Homani milites, improviso metu incerti 
ignarique quid potissimum facerent, trepidare; ad 
arcem oppidi, ubi signa et scuta erant, praesidium 
hostium ; portae ante clausae f ugam prohibebant ; ad 
hoc mulieres puerique pro tectis aedificiorum saxa et 
alia, quae locus praebebat, certatim mittere. Ita ne- 
que caveri anceps malum, neque a fortissimis infirmis- 
simo generi resisti posse ; juxta boni malique, strenui 
et imbelles, inulti obtruncati. In ea tanta asperitate, 
saevissimis ISTumidis et oppido undique clauso, Turpi- 
lius praefectus unus ex omnibus Italicis profugit in- 
tactus. Id misericordiane hospitis, an pactione aut 
casu ita evenerit, parum comperimus; nisi, quia illi 
in tanto malo turpis vita fama integra potior, impro- 
bus intestabilisque videtur. 

LXYIII. Metellus postquam de rebus Yagae actis 
comperit, paullisper moestus e conspectu abit ; deinde, 
ubi ira et aegritudo permixta sunt, cum maxima cura 
ultum ire injurias festinat. Legionem, cum qua hiem- 



SALLUSTII JUGUETHA. 57 

abat, et quam plurimos potest Numidas equites pari- 
ter cum occasu solis expeditos educit, et postera die 
circiter horam tertiam pervenit in quamdam planitiem, 
locis paullo superioribus circumventam. Ibi milites 
fessos itineris magnitudine et jam abnuentes omnia 
docet, " oppidum Vagam non amplius mille passuum 
abessej decere illos reliquum laborem aequo animo pati, 
dum pro civibus suis, viris fortissimis atque miserrimis, 
poenas caperent : " praeterea praedam benigne osten- 
tat. Sic animis eorum arrectis, equites in primo late, 
pedites quam arctissime ire et signa occultare jubet. 

LXIX. Yagenses ubi animum advertere ad se 
versum exercitum pergere, primo, uti erat res, Me- 
tellum rati, portas clausere ; deinde, ubi neque agros 
vastari, et eos, qui primi aderant, Numidas equites 
vident, rursum Jugurtham arbitrati, cum magno 
gaudio obvii procedunt. Equites peditesque, repente 
signo dato, alii vulgum effusum oppido caedere ; alii ad 
portas festinare ; pars turrescapere; ira atque praedae 
spes amplius, quam lassitudo, posse. Ita Yagenses 
biduum modo ex perndia laetati : civitas magna et 
opulens poenae cuncta aut praedae fuit. Turpilius, 
quern praefectum oppidi unum ex omnibus profugisse 
supra ostendimus, jussus a Metello caussam dicere, 
postquam sese parum expurgat, condemnatus verbera- 
tusque capite poenas solvit: nam is civis ex Latio erat. 

LXX. Per idem tempus Bomilcar, cujus impulsu 
Jugurtha deditionem, quam metu deseruit, inceperat, 
suspectus regi, et ipse eum suspiciens, novas res cupere; 
ad perniciem ejus dolum quaerere ; diu noctuque fati- 
gare animum. Denique, omnia tentando, socium sibi 
adjungit Nabdalsam, hominem nobilem, magnis opi- 



58 SALLUSTIT JUGURT1IA. 

bus, carum acceptumque popularibus suis; qui pie- 
rumque seorsum ab rege exercitum ductare, et omnes 
res exsequi solitus erat, quae Jugurthae fesso aut 
majoribus adstrictp superaverant : ex quo illi gloria 
opesque inventae. Igitur utriusque consilio dies in- 
sidiis statuitur : caetera, uti res posceret, ex tempore 
parari placuit. Nabdalsa ad exercitum prof ectus, quern 
inter hiberna Homanorum jussus habebat, ne ager 
inultis hostibus vastaretur. Is postquam, magnitu- 
dine facinoris perculsus, ad tempus non venit, metus- 
que rem impediebat, Bomilcar, simul cupidus incepta 
patrandi, et timore socii anxius, ne omisso vetere 
consilio novum quaereret, litteras ad eum per homines 
fideles mittit, in queis, " mollitiem secordiamque viri 
accusare : testari deos, per quos juravisset : monere ne 
praemia Metelli in pestem converteret : Jugurthae ex- 
itium adesse ; ceterum suane an Metelli virtute peri- 
ret, id modo agitari : proinde reputaret cum animo 
suo, praemia an cruciatum mallet." 

LXXL Sed quum hae litterae allatae, forte 
Nabdalsa exercito corpore fessus in lecto quiescebat, 
ubi cognitis Bomilcaris verbis primo cura, deinde, uti 
aegrum animum solet, somnus cepit. Erat ei JSTumida 
quidam, negotiorum curator, fidus acceptusque et om- 
nium consiliorum, nisi novissimi, particeps. Qui post- 
quam allatas litteras audivit, ex consuetudine ratus 
opera et ingenio suo opus esse, in tabernaculum in- 
tromit ; dormiente illo, epistolam, super caput in pul- 
vino temere positam, sumit ac perlegit ; dein propere, 
cognitis insidiis, ad regem pergit. Nabdalsa post 
paullo experrectus, ubi neque epistolam repperit, et 
rem omnem, uti acta erat, cognovit, primo indicem 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 59 

persequi conatus ; postquam id f rustra f uit, Jugurtham 
placandi gratia accedit; dicit, "quae ipse paravisset 
facere, perfidia clientis sui praeventa " ; lacrimans ob- 
testatur, "per amicitiam perque sua antea fideliter 
acta, ne super tali scelere suspectum sese haberet." 

LXXII. Ad ea rex, aliter atque animo gerebat, 
placide respondit. Bomilcare aliisque multis, quos 
socios insidiarum cognoverat, interfectis iram oppres- 
serat, ne qua ex eo negotio seditio oriretur. ISTeque 
post id locorum Jugurthae dies aut nox ulla quieta 
f uit ; neque loco, neque mortali cuiquam, aut tempori, 
satis credere; cives, hostes, juxta metuere; circum- 
spectare omnia, et omni strepitu pavescere ; alio atque 
alio loco, saepe contra decus regium, noctu requiescere ; 
interdum, somno excitus arreptis armis tumultum 
facere ; ita formidine quasi vecordia exagitari. 

LXXIII. Igitur Metellus, ubi de casu Bomilcaris 
et indicio patefacto ex perfugis cognovit, rursus tam- 
quam ad integrum bellum cuncta parat festinatque. 
Marium, fatigantem de profectione, simul et invitum 
et offensum sibi parum idoneum ratus, domum di- 
mittit. Et Romae plebes, litteris, quae de Metello ac 
Mario missae erant, cognitis, volenti animo de ambobus 
acceperant. Imperatori nobilitas, quae antea decori, 
invidiae esse : at illi alteri generis humilitas favorem 
addiderat : ceterum in utroque magis studia partium 
quam bona aut mala sua moderata sunt. Praeterea 
seditiosi magistratus vulgum exagitare, Metellum om- 
nibus concionibus capitis arcessere, Marii virtutem in 
majus celebrare. Denique plebes sic accensa, uti opi- 
fices agrestesque omnes, quorum res fidesque in mani- 
bus sitae erant, relictis operibus frequentarent Marium, 



60 SALLUSTII JUGUBTHA. 

et sua necessaria post illius honorem ducerent. lta 
perculsa nobilitate post multas tempestates novo ho- 
mini consulatus mandatur; et postea populus a tri- 
buno plebis Manilio Mancino rogatus, quern vellet 
cum Jugurtha bellum gerere, frequens Marium jussit. 
Sed senatus paullo ante Metello Numidiam decreve- 
rat : ea res frustra f uit. 

LXXIY. Eodem tempore Jugurtha, amissis ami- 
cis, quorum plerosque ipse necaverat, ceteri formidine, 
pars ad Romanos, alii ad regem Bocchum profugerant; 
quum neque bellum geri sine administris posset, et no- 
vorum fidem in tanta perfidia veterum experiri peri- 
culosum duceret, varius incertusque agitabat ; neque 
illi res, neque consilium, aut quisquam hominum satis 
placebat \ itinera praef ectosque in dies mutare \ modo 
adversum hostes, interdum in solitudines pergere; saepe 
in fuga, ac post paullo spem in armis habere dubitare, 
virtuti popularium an fide minus crederet : ita, quo- 
cumque intenderat, res adversae erant. Sed inter eas 
moras repente sese Metellus cum exercitu ostendit. 
Numidae ab Jugurtha pro tempore parati instructique : 
dein proelium incipitur. Qua in parte rex pugnae ad- 
fuit, ibi aliquamdiu certatum; ceteri ejus milites primo 
concursu pulsi fugatique. E/Omani signorum et armo- 
rum aliquanto numero, hostium paucorum potiti: nam 
ferme Numidas in omnibus proeliis pedes magis quam 
arma tuta sunt. 

LXXY. Ea fuga Jugurtha, impensius modo re- 
bus suis diffidens, cum perfugis et parte equitatus in 
solitudines, dein Thalam pervenit, in oppidum mag- 
num et opulentum, ubi plerique thesauri, nliorumque 
ejus multus pueritiae cultus erat. Quae postquam Me- 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 61 

tello comperta sunt, quamquam inter Thalam flumen- 
que proximum, spatio millium quinquaginta, loca arida 
atque vasta esse cognoverat, tamen spe patrandi belli, 
si ejus oppidi potitus foret, omnes asperitates super- 
vadere, ac naturam etiam vincere aggreditur. Igitur 
omnia jumenta sarcinis levari jubet, nisi frumento 
dierum decern; ceterum utres modo et alia aquae 
idonea portari. Praeterea conquirit ex agris quam 
plurimum potest domiti pecoris ; eoque imponit vasa 
cuj usque modi, pleraque lignea, collecta ex tuguriis 
Numidarum. Ad hoe finitimis imperat, qui se post 
regis f ugam Metello dederant, quam plurimum quisque 
aquae portarent ; diem locumque, ubi praesto fuerint, 
praedicit. Ipse ex flumine, quam proximam oppido 
aquam supra diximus, jumenta onerat : eo modo in- 
structus ad Thalam pronciscitur. Deinde, ubi ad id 
loci ventum, quo Numidis praeceperat, et castra posita 
munitaque sunt, tanta repente caelo missa vis aquae 
dicitur, ut ea modo exercitui satis superque foret. 
Praeterea commeatus spe amplior; quia Numidae, 
sicuti plerique in nova deditione, officia intenderant. 
Ceterum milites religione pluvia magis usi : eaque 
res multum animis eorum addidit ; nam rati sese dis 
immortalibus curae esse. Deinde postero die, contra 
opinionem Jugurthae, ad Thalam perveniunt. Oppi- 
dani, qui se locorum asperitate munitos crediderant, 
magna atque insolita re perculsi, nihilo segnius bellum 
parare : idem nostri facere. 

LXXVI. Sed rex nihil jam infectum Metello 
credens, quippe qui omnia, arma, tela, locos, tempora, 
denique naturam ipsam ceteris imperitantem industria 
vicerat, cum liberis et magna parte pecuniae ex oppido 



62 SALLUSTII JUGUBTHA. 

noctu profugit ; neque postea in ullo loco amplius uno 
die ant nna nocte moratns, simnlabat . sese negotii 
gratia properare ; ceternm proditionem timebat, qnam 
vitare posse celeritate pntabat: nam talia consilia per 
otinm et ex opportunitate capi. At Metellus, nbi 
oppidanos proelio intentos, simul oppidum et operibns 
et loco mnnitnm videt, vallo fossaqne moenia circum- 
venit. Deinde locis ex copia maxime idoneis vineas 
agere, aggerem jacere, et super aggerem impositis 
turribus opus et administros tutari. Contra haec oppi- 
dani f estinare, parare : prorsus ab utrisque nihil reli- 
quum fieri. Denique Homani, multo ante labore 
proeliisque fatigati, post dies quadraginta, quam eo 
ventum erat, oppido modo potiti : praeda omnis ab 
perfugis corrupta. Ii postquam murum arietibus 
feriri resque suas afflictas vident, aurum atque ar- 
gentum et alia, quae prima ducuntur, domum regiam 
comportant: ibi vino et epulis onerati, illaque et 
domum et semet igni corrumpunt; et quas victi ab 
hostibus poenas metuerant, eas ipsi volentes pepen- 
dere. 

LXXYII. Sed pariter cum capta Thala legati 
ex oppido Lepti ad Metellum venerant, orantes, "uti 
praesidium praefectumque eo mitteret; Hamilcarem 
quemdam, hominem nobilem, factiosum, novis rebus 
studere ; adversum quern neque imperia magistratuum, 
neque leges valerent ; ni id f estinaret, in summo peri- 
culo suam salutem, illorum socios fore." Nam Lepti- 
tani jam inde a principio belli Jugurthini ad Bestiam 
consulem et postea Eomam miserant, amicitiam socie- 
tatemque rogatum : deinde, ubi ea impetrata, semper 
boni fidelesque mansere, et cuncta a Bestia, Albino 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 63 

Metelloque imperata gnave fecerant. Itaque ab im- 
peratore facile quae petebant adepti, et missae eo 
cohortes Ligurum quatuor et 0. Annius praefectus. 

LXXYIII. Id oppidum ab Sidoniis conditum, 
quos accepimus prof ugos ob discordias civiles navibus 
in eos locos venisse ; ceterum situm inter duas Syrtes, 
quibus nomen ex re inditum. Nam duo sunt sinus 
prope in extrema Africa, impares magnitudine, pari 
natura : quorum proxima terrae praealta sunt ; cetera 
uti f ors tulit alta ; alia in tempestate vadosa. Nam 
ubi mare magnum esse et saevire ventis coepit, limum 
arenamque et saxa ingentia fluctus trahunt: ita facies 
locorum cum ventis simul mutatur. [Syrtes ab tractu 
nominatae.] Ejus civitatis lingua modo conversa con- 
nubio Numidarum; leges cultusque pleraque Sidonica; 
quae eo facilius retinebant, quod procul ab imperio 
regis aetatem agebant. Inter illos et frequentem Nu- 
midiam multi vastique loci erant. 

LXXIX. Sed quoniam in has regiones per Lepti- 
tanorum negotia venimus, non indignum videtur egre- 
gium atque mirabile f acinus duorum Cartbaginiensium 
memorare : earn rem nos locus admonuit. Qua tem- 
pestate Carthaginienses pleraeque Africae imperitabant, 
Cyrenenses quoque magni atque opulenti f uere. Ager 
in medio arenosus, una specie ; neque flurnen, neque 
mons erat, qui fines eorum discerneret \ quae res eos in 
magno diuturnoque bello inter se habuit. Postquam 
utrimque legiones, item classes fusae fugataeque, et 
alteri alteros aliquantum adtriverant, veriti, ne mox 
victos victoresque defessos alius aggrederetur, per in- 
ducias sponsionem faciunt, " uti certo die legati domo 
proficiscerentur ; quo in loco inter se obvii f uissent, is 



64 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

communis utriusque populi finis haberetur." Igitur 
Carthagine duo fratres missi, quibus nomen Philaenis 
erat, maturavere iter pergere : Cyrenenses tardius iere. 
Id secordiane an casu accideret, parum cognovi. Ce- 
terum solet in illis locis tempestas haud secus atque 
in mari retinere. Nam ubi per loca aequalia et nuda 
gignentium ventus coortus arenam humo excitavit, ea 
magna vi agitata ora oculosque implere solet; ita 
prospectu impedito morari iter. Postquam Cyrenenses 
aliquanto posteriores se vident, et ob rem corruptam 
domi poenas metuunt, criminari Carthaginienses ante 
tempus domo digressos conturbare rem, denique om- 
nia malle, quam victi abire. Sed, quum Poeni aliam 
condicionem, tantummodo aequam, peterent, Graeci 
optionem Carthaginiensibus faciunt, "ut vel illi, quos 
fines populo suo peterent, ibi vivi obruerentur; vel 
cadem condicione sese quern in locum vellent pfo- 
cessuros." Philaeni condicione probata, seque vitam- 
que reipublicae condonavere : ita vivi obruti. Car- 
thaginienses in eo loco Philaenis fratribus aras conse- 
cravere ; aliique illis domi honores instituti. Nunc 
ad rem redeo. 

LXXX. Jugurtha postquam amissa Thala nihil 
satis firmum contra Metellum putat, per magnas soli- 
tudines cum paucis profectus pervenit ad Gaetulos, 
genus hominum ferum incultumque et eo tempore 
ignarum nominis Homani. Eorum multitudinem in 
unum cogit, ac paullatim consuefacit ordines habere, 
signa sequi, imperium observare, item alia militaria 
facere. Praeterea regis Bocchi proximos magnis mu- 
neribus et majoribus promissis ad studium sui per- 
ducit ; queis adjutoribus regem aggressus impellit, uti 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 65 

adversum Bomanos bellum suscipiat. Id ea gratia 
facilius proniusque fuit, quod Bocchus initio hujusce 
belli legatos E-omam miserat, foedus et amicitiam 
petitum; quam rem opportunissimam incepto bello. 
pauci impediverant, caeci avaritia, queis omnia, honesta 
atque inhonesta, vendere mos erat. Etiam antea Ju- 
gurthae filia Bocchi nupserat. Verum ea necessitudo 
apud Numidas Maurosque levis ducitur; quod singuli, 
pro opibus quisque, quam plurimas uxores, denas alii, 
alii plures habent ; sed reges eo amplius. Ita animus 
multitudine distrahitur ; nulla pro socia obtinet ; pari- 
ter omnes viles sunt. 

LXXXI. Igitur in locum ambobus placitum exer- 
citus conveniunt; ibi, fide data et accepta, Jugurtha 
Bocchi animum oratione accendit: "Bomanos injustos, 
profunda avaritia, communes omnium hostes esse : ean- 
dem illos caussam belli cum Boccho habere, quam 
secum et cum aliis gentibus, lubidinem imperitandi; 
queis omnia regna adversa sint : turn sese, paullo ante 
Carthaginienses, item regem Persen, post uti quisque 
opulentissimus videatur, ita Bomanis hostem fore." 
His atque aliis talibus dictis ad Cirtam oppidum iter 
constituunt, quod ibi Metellus praedam captivosque et 
impedimenta locaverat. Ita Jugurtha ratus, aut capta 
urbe operae pretium fore, aut si Bomanus auxilio suis 
venisset, proelio sese certaturos. Nam callidus id 
modo festinabat, Bocchi pacem imminuere, ne moras 
agitando aliud quam bellum mallet. 

LXXXII. Imperator postquam de regum socie- 

tate cognovit, non temere, neque, uti saepe jam victo 

Jugurtha consueveratj omnibus locis pugnandi copiam 

facit; ceterum haud procul ab Cirta castris munitis 

jug. 5 



66 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

reges opperitur; melius ratus, cognitis Mauris, quoniam 
is novus hostis accesserat, ex commodo pugnam facere. 
Interim Roma per litteras certior fit provinciam Nu- 
midiam Mario datam : nam consulem factum ante ac- 
ceperat. Queis rebus supra bonum atque honestum 
perculsus, neque lacrimas tenere, neque moderari 
linguam : vir egregius in aliis artibus nimis molliter 
aegritudinem pati. Quam rem alii in superbiam ver- 
tebant: alii bonum ingenium contumelia accensumesse; 
multi, quod jam parta victoria ex manibus eriperetur ; 
nobis satis cognitum est, ilium magis honore Marii 
quam injuria sua, excruciatum, neque tamanxielaturum 
fuisse, si ademta provincia alii quam Mario traderetur. 
LXXXIII. Igitur eo dolore impeditus, et quia 
stultitiae videbatur alienam rem periculo suo curare, 
legatos ad Bocchum mittit postulatum : " ne sine 
caussa hostis populo Romano fieret ; habere turn mag- 
nam copiam societatis amicitiaeque conjungendae, quae 
potior bello esset; quamquam opibus confideret, non 
debere incerta pro certis mutare; omne bellum sumi 
facile, ceterum aegerrime desinere; non in ejusdem 
potestate initium ejus et finem esse : incipere cuivis, 
etiam ignavo, licere; deponi, quum victores velint: 
proinde sibi regnoque consuleret, neu florentes res 
suas cum Jugurthae perditis miseeret." Ad ea rex 
satis placide verba facit : " sese pacem cupere, sed Ju- 
gurthae f ortunarum misereri ; si eadem illi copia fieret, 
omnia conventura." Rursus imperator contra postu- 
lata Bocchi nuncios mittit: ille probare, partim ab- 
nuere. Eo modo saepe ab utroque missis remissisque 
nunciis tempus procedere, et ex Metelli voluntate, 
belium intactum trahi. 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 67 

LXXXIV. At Marius, ut supra diximus, cupien- 
tissima plebe consul factus, postquam ei provinciam 
Numidiam populus jussit, ante jam infestus nobili- 
tati, turn vero multus atque ferox instare; singulos 
modo, modo universos laedere; dictitare "sese con- 
sulatum ex victis illis spolia cepisse;" alia praeterea 
magnifica pro se, et illis dolentia. Interim, quae bello 
opus erant, prima habere; postulare legionibus supple- 
mentum, auxilia a populis et regibus sociisque arces- 
sere ; praeterea ex Latio f ortissimum quemque, pleros- 
que militiae, paucos fama cognitos accire, et ambiendo 
cogere homines emeritis stipendiis secum proncisci. 
Neque illi senatus, quamquam ad versus erat, de ullo 
negotio abnuere audebat; ceterum supplementum 
etiam laetus decreverat, quia neque plebi militia vo- 
lenti putabatur, et Marius aut belli usum aut studia 
vulgi amissurus. Sed ea res frustra sperata; tanta 
lubido cum Mario eundi plerosque invaserat. Sese 
quisque praeda locupletem fore, victorem domum re- 
diturum, alia hujuscemodi, animis trahebant: et eos 
non paullum oratione sua Marius arrexerat. Nam 
postquam, omnibus quae postulaverat decretis, milites 
scribere vult, hortandi caussa, simul et nobilitatem, 
uti consueverat, exagitandi, concionem populi advo- 
cavit. Deinde hoc modo disseruit. 

LXXXY. "Scio ego, Quirites, plerosque non 
isdem artibus imperium a vobis petere et, postquam 
adepti sunt, gerere ; primo industrios, supplices, modi- 
cos esse; deinde per ignaviam et superbiam aetatem 
agere. Sed mihi contra ea videtur; nam quo uni- 
versa respublica pluris est quam consulatus aut prae- 
tura, eo majore cura illam administrari quam haec 

5—2 



68 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

peti debere. Neque me fallit, quantum cum maximo 
beneficio vestro negotii sustineam. Bellum parare 
simul, et aerario parcere ; cogere ad militiam eos quos 
nolis offendere ; domi f orisque omnia curare ; et ea 
agere inter invidos, occursantes, factiosos, opinione, 
Quirites, asperius est. Ad hoc alii si deliquere, vetus 
nobilitas, majorum fortia facta, cognatorum et af- 
finium opes, multae ciientelae, omnia haec praesidio 
adsunt : mihi spes omnes in memet sitae, quas necesse 
est et virtute et innocentia tutari: nam alia infirma 
sunt. Et illud intelligo, Quirites, omnium ora in me 
con versa esse ; aequos bonosque favere : quippe bene 
facta mea reipublicae procedunt: nobilitatem locum 
invadendi quaerere. Quo mihi acrius annitendum est, 
ut neque vos capiamini, et illi frustra sint. Ita ad 
hoc aetatis a pueritia fui, ut omnes labores, pericula 
consueta habeam. Quae ante vestra beneficia gratuito 
faciebam, ea uti accepta mercede deseram, non est 
consilium, Quirites. Illis difficile est in potestatibus 
temperare, qui per ambitionem sese probos simulavere ; 
mihi, qui omnem aetatem in optimis artibus egi, bene 
facer e jam ex consuetudine in naturam yertit. Bellum 
me gerere cum Jugurtha jussistis; quam rem nobilitas 
aegerrime tulit. Quaeso, reputate cum animis vestris, 
num id mutare melius sit, si quern ex illo globo nobili- 
tatis ad hoc aut aliud tale negotium mittatis, hominem 
veteris prosapiae ac multarum imaginum et nullius 
stipendii: scilicet, ut in tanta re ignarus omnium 
trepidet, f estinet, sumat aliquem ex populo monitorem 
officii sui. Ita plerumque evenit, ut quern vos im- 
perare jussistis, is sibi imperatorem alium quaerat. 
Atque ego scio, Quirites. qui, postquam consules facti 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 69 

sunt, acta majorum, et Graecorum niilitaria praecepta 
legere coeperint; homines praeposteri. Nam gerere 
quam fieri tempore posterius, re atque usu prius est. 
Comparate nunc, Quirites, cum illorum superbia me 
hominem novum. Quae illi audire et legere solent, 
eorum partem vidi, alia egomet gessi ; quae illi Uteris, 
ego militando didici. Nunc vos existimate, facta an 
dicta pluris sint. Oontemnunt novitatem meam ; ego 
illorum ignaviam : milii fortuna, illis probra objec- 
tantur ; quamquam ego naturam unam et communem 
omnium existimo, sed fortissimum quemque generosis- 
simum. Ac si jam ex patribus Albini aut Bestiae 
quaeri posset, mene an illos ex se gigni maluerint, 
quid responsuros creditis, nisi sese liberos quam opti- 
mos voluisse 1 ? Quod si jure me despiciunt, faciant 
idem majoribus suis, quibus, uti mihi, ex virtute nobi- 
litas coepit. Invident honori meo ; ergo invideant 
labori, innocentiae, periculis etiam meis, quoniam per 
haec ilium cepi. Yerum homines corrupti superbia 
ita aetatem agunt, quasi vestros honores contemnant ; 
ita hos petunt, quasi honeste vixerint. Nae illi falsi 
sunt, qui diversissimas res pariter exspectant, ignaviae 
voluptatem et praemia virtutis. Atque etiam quum 
apud vos aut in senatu verba faciunt, pleraque ora- 
tione majores suos extollunt; eorum fortia facta 
memorando clariores sese putant. Quod contra est: 
nam quanto vita illorum praeclarior, tanto horum 
secordia flagitiosior. Et profecto ita se res habet: 
majorum gloria posteris lumen est, neque bona neque 
mala in occulto patitur. Hujusce rei ego inopiam 
patior, Quirites; verum, id quod multo praeclarius 
est, meamet facta mihi dicere licet. Nunc videte, 



70 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

quam iniqui sint. Quod ex aliena virtute sibi arro- 
gant, id mihi ex mea non concedunt: scilicet, quia 
imagines non habeo, et quia mihi nova nobilitas est ; 
quam certe peperisse melius est, quam acceptam corru- 
pisse. Equidem ego non ignoro, si jam respondere 
velint, abunde illis f acundam et compositam orationem 
fore. Sed in maximo vestro beneficio quum omnibus 
locis me vosque maledictis lacerent, non placuit reti- 
cere, ne quis modestiam in conscientiam duceret. 
Nam me quidem, ex animi mei sententia nulla oratio 
laedere potest: quippe vera necesse est bene praedicet; 
falsam vita moresque mei superant. Sed, quoniam 
vestra consilia accusantur, qui mini summum honorem 
et maximum negotium imposuistis, etiam atque etiam 
reputate, num eorum poenitendum sit. Non possum 
fidei caussa imagines, neque triumphos aut consulatus 
majorum meorum ostentare; at, si res postulet, hastas, 
vexillum, phaleras, alia militaria dona; praeterea, cica- 
trices adverso corpore. Hae sunt meae imagines, 
haec nobilitas, non hereditate relicta, ut ilia illis, 
sed quae ego plurimis laboribus et periculis quaesivi. 
Non sunt composita verba mea ; parum id facio ; ipsa 
se virtus satis ostendit: illis artificio opus est, uti 
turpia facta oratione tegant. Neque litteras Graecas 
didici : parum plaeebat eas discere, quippe quae ad vir- 
tutem doctoribus nihil profuerunt. At ilia multo op- 
tima reipublicae doctus sum - } hostem ferire, praesidia 
agitare; nihil metuere, nisi turpem famam; hiemem 
et aestatem juxta pati ; humi requiescere ; eodem tem- 
pore inopiam et laborem tolerare. His ego praeceptis 
milites hortabor : neque illos arete colam, me opu- 
lenter \ neque gloriam meam laborem illorum f aciam. 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 71 

Hoc est utile, hoc civile imperium. Namque, quum 
tute per mollitiem agas, exercitum supplicio cogere, id 
est, domiimm, non imperatorem, esse. Haec atque 
talia majores vestri faciendo seque remque publicam 
celebravere : queis nobilitas freta, ipsa dissimilis mori- 
bus, nos illorum aemulos contemnit; et omnes honores 
non ex merito, sed quasi debitos a vobis repetit. 
Ceterum homines superbissimi procul errant. Majores 
eorum omnia, quae licebat, illis reliquere, divitias, 
imagines, memoriam sui praeclaram : virtutem non re- 
liquere, neque poterant : ea sola neque datur dono, ne- 
que accipitur. Sordidum me et incultis moribus aiunt, 
quia parum scite convivium exorno, neque histrionem 
ullum, neque pluris pretii coquum quam villicum 
habeo; quae mihi lubet confiteri. Nam ex parente 
meo et ex aliis Sanctis viris ita accepi, munditias mu- 
lieribus, viris laborem convenire, omnibusque bonis 
oportere plus gloriae, quam divitiarum esse ; arma, non 
supellectilem decori esse. Quin ergo quod juvat, quod 
carum aestimant, id semper faciant; ament, potent; 
ubi adolescentiam habuere, ibi senectutem agant, in 
conviviis, dediti ventri et turpissimae parti corporis; 
sudorem, pulverem, et alia talia, relinquant nobis, 
quibus ilia epulis jucundiora sunt. Verum non est 
ita. Nam ubi se nagitiis dedecoravere turpissimi 
viri, bonorum praemia ereptum eunt. Ita injustis- 
sime luxuria et ignavia, pessimae artes, illis, qui 
coluere eas, nihil officiunt ; reipublicae innoxiae cladi 
sunt. Nunc, quoniam illis, quantum mores mei, non 
illorum flagitia poscebant, respondi, pauca de republica 
loquar. Primum omnium de Numidia bonum habe- 
tote animum, Quirites. Nam quae ad hoc tempus 



72 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

Jugurtham tutata sunt, omnia removistis, avaritiam, 
imperitiam, superbiam. Deinde exercitus ibi est loco- 
rum sciens; sed mehercule magis strenuus quam felix. 
Nam magna pars ejus avaritia aut temeritate ducum 
attrita est. Quamobrem vos, quibus militaris est 
aetas, annitimini mecum et capessite rempublicam; 
neque quemquam ex calamitate aliorum aut impera- 
torum superbia metus ceperit. Egomet in agmine, in 
proelio, consultor idem et socius periculi vobiscum 
adero ; meque vosque in omnibus rebus juxta geram. 
Et profecto dis juvantibus omnia matura sunt, vic- 
toria, praeda, laus; quae si dubia aut procul essent, 
tamen omnes bonos reipublicae subvenire decebat. 
Etenim ignavia nemo immortalis factus, neque quis- 
quam parens liberis uti aeterni f orent optavit ; magis, 
uti boni honestique vitam exigerent. Plura dicerem, 
Quirites, si timidis virtutem verba adderent; nam 
strenuis abunde dictum puto." 

LXXXYI. Hujuscemodi oratione habita Marius 
postquam plebis animos arrectos videt, propere com- 
meatu, stipendio, armis, aliis utilibus naves onerat: 
cum his A. Manlium legatum proncisci jubet. Ipse 
interea milites scribere, non more majorum, neque ex 
classibus, sed uti cujusque lubido erat, capite censos 
plerosque. Id factum alii inopia bonorum, alii per 
ambitionem consulis, memorabant, quod ab eo genere 
celebratus auctusque erat ; et homini potentiam quae- 
renti egentissimus quisque opportunissimus, cui neque 
sua curae, quippe quae nulla sunt, et omnia cum 
pretio honesta videntur. Igitur Marius cum majore 
aliquanto numero, quam decretum erat, in Africam 
profectus diebus paucis Uticam advehitur. Exercitus 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 73 

ei traditur a P. Rutilio legato ; nam Metellus con- 
spectum Marii fugerat, ne videret ea, quae audita 
animus tolerare nequiverat. 

LXXXVII. Sed consul, expletis legionibus co- 
hortibusque auxiliariis, in agrum fertilem et praeda 
onustum proficiscitur : omnia ibi capta militibus do- 
nat; dein castella et oppida natura et viris parum 
munita aggreditur : proelia multa, ceterum levia, alia 
aliis locis facere. Interim novi milites sine metu 
pugnae adesse ; videre f ugientes capi, occidi ; f ortissi- 
mum quemque tutissimum ; armis libertatem, patriam, 
parentesque et alia omnia tegi ; gloriam atque divitias 
quaeri. Sic brevi spatio novi veteresque coaluere, et 
virtus omnium aequalis facta. At reges, ubi de ad- 
ventu Marii cognoverunt, diversi in locos difficiles 
abeunt. Ita Jugurthae placuerat, speranti mox effusos 
hostes invadi posse; Homanos, sicuti plerosque, re- 
moto metu laxius licentiusque futuros. 

LXXXYIII. Metellus interea Eomam profectus 
contra spem suam laetissimis animis excipitur; plebi 
patribusque, postquam invidia decesserat, juxta carus. 
Sed Marius impigre prudenterque suorum et hostium 
res pariter attendere; cognoscere quid boni utrisquc, 
aut contra, esset ; explorare itinera regum, consilia et 
insidias ante venire; nihil apud se remissum, nequc 
apud illos tutum pati. Itaque et Gaetulos eb Jugur- 
tham, ex sociis nostris praedam agentes, saepe ag- 
gressus in itinere f uderat, ipsumque regem haud procul 
ab oppido Cirta armis exuerat. Quae postquam glo- 
riosa modo, neque belli patrandi, cognovit, statuit 
urbes, quae viris aut loco pro hostibus et adversum 
se opportunissimae erant, singnlas circumvenire : ita. 



74 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

Jugurtham ant praesidiis nudatum, si ea pateretur, aut 
proelio certaturum. ISTam Bocchus nuncios ad eum 
saepe miserat, "velle populi Romani amicitiam, ne 
quid ab se hostile timeret." Id simulaveritne, quo im- 
provisus gravior accideret, an mobilitate ingenii pacem 
atque bellum mutare solitus, parum exploratum est. 

LXXXIX. Sed consul, uti statuerat, oppida cas- 
tellaque munita adire ; partim vi, alia metu aut prae- 
mia ostentando avertere ab hostibus. Ac primo medio- 
cria gerebat, existimans Jugurtham ob suos tutandos 
in manus venturum. Sed ubi ilium procul abesse et 
aliis negotiis intentum accepit, majora et magis aspera 
aggredi tempus visum est. Erat inter ingentes solitu- 
dines oppidum magnum atque valens, nomine Capsa, 
cujus conditor Hercules Libys memorabatur. Ejus 
cives apud Jugurtham immunes, levi imperio, et ob 
ea ndelissiini habebantur, muniti adversum hostes non 
moenibus modo et armis atque viris, verum etiam 
multo magis locorum asperitate. ISTam praeter op- 
pido propinqua alia omnia vasta, inculta, egentia 
aquae, infesta serpentibus ; quarum vis, sicuti omnium 
ferarum, inopia cibi acrior; ad hoc natura serpentium, 
ipsa perniciosa, siti magis quam alia re accenditur. 
Ejus potiendi Marium maxima cupido invaserat, quum 
propter usum belli, turn quia res aspera videbatur ; et 
Metellus oppidum Thalam magna gloria ceperat, haud 
dissimiliter situm munitumque, nisi quod apud Tha- 
lam haud longe a moenibus aliquot fontes erant, Gap- 
senses una modo, atque ea intra oppidum, jugi aqua, 
cetera pluvia utebantur. Id ibique et in omni Africa, 
quae procul a mari incultius agebat, eo facilius tole- 
rabatur, quia Numidae plerumque lacte et ferina 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 75 

carne vescebantur, neque salem neque alia irritamenta 
gulae quaerebant; cibus illis adversum famem atque 
sitim, non lubidini neque luxuriae erat. 

XC. Igitur consul, omnibus exploratis, credo dis 
foetus (nam contra tantas dinicultates consilio satis 
providere non poterat; quippe etiam frumenti inopia 
tentabatur, quod Numidae pabulo pecoris magis quam 
arvo student, et, quodcumque natum fuerat jussu 
regis in loca munita contulerant, ager autem aridus 
et fougum vacuus ea tempestate, nam aestatis extre- 
mum erat); tamen pro rei copia satis providenter ex- 
ornat; pecus omne, quod superioribus diebus praedae 
fuerat, equitibus auxiliariis agendum attribuit, A. 
Manlium legatum cum cohortibus expeditis ad oppi- 
dum Laris, ubi stipendium et commeatum locaverat, 
ire jubet; se praedabundum post paucos dies eodem 
venturum. Sic incepto suo occultato pergit ad flumen 
Tanam. 

XOI. Ceterum in itinere quotidie pecus exercitui 
per centurias, item turmas aequaliter distribuerat, et 
ex coriis utres uti fierent curabat; simul et inopiam 
frumenti lenire, et ignaris omnibus parare, quae mox 
usui forent. Denique sexto die, quum ad flumen 
ventum est, maxima vis utrium effecta. Ibi castris 
levi munimento positis, milites cibum capere, atque 
uti simul cum occasu solis egrederentur, paratos esse 
jubet omnibus sarcinis abjectis, aqua modo seque et 
jumenta onerare. Dein, postquam tempus visum, 
castris egreditur, noctemque totam itinere facto con- 
sedit: idem proxima facit: dein tertia multo ante 
lucis adventum pervenit in locum tumulosum, ab 
Capsa non amplius duum millium intervallo; ibique 



76 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

quam occultissime potest cum omnibus copiis opperi- 
tur. Sed ubi dies coepit, et Numidae, nihil hostile 
metuentes, multi oppido egressi, repente omnem equi- 
tatum, et cum his velocissimos pedites cursu tendere 
ad Capsam et portas obsidere, jubet; deinde ipse 
intentus propere sequi, neque milites praedari sinere. 
Quae postquam oppidani cognovere, res trepidae, me- 
tus ingens, malum improvisum, ad hoc pars civium 
extra moenia in hostium potestate, coegere, uti de 
ditionem facerent. Ceterum oppidum incensum; Nu- 
midae puberes interfecti; alii omnes venum dati; 
praeda militibus divisa. Id f acinus contra jus belli 
non avaritia neque scelere consulis admissum 3 sed 
quia locus Jugurthae opportunus, nobis aditu difficilis, 
genus hominum mobile, infidum, neque beneficio ne- 
que metu coercitum. 

XCII. Postquam tantam rem Marius sine ullo 
suorum incommodo patravit, magnus et clarus antea, 
major et clarior haberi coepit. Omnia, non bene 
consulta modo, verum etiam casu data in virtutem 
trahebantur; milites, modesto imperio habiti simul 
et locupletes, ad caelum ferre ; Numidae magis quam 
mortalem timere ; postremo omnes, socii atque hostes, 
credere, illi aut mentem divinam esse, aut deorum 
nutu cuncta portendi. Sed consul, ubi ea res bene 
evenit, ad alia oppida pergit, pauca repugnantibus 
ISTumidis capit, plura, deserta propter Capsensium 
miserias, igni corrumpit: luctu atque caede omnia 
complentur. Denique multis locis potitus, ac pleris- 
que exercitu incruento, aliam rem aggreditur, non 
eadem asperitate, qua Capsensium, ceterum haud secus 
difficilem. Namque haud longe a flumine Mulucha, 



SALLUSTII JUGUETHA. 77 

quod Jugurthae Bocchique regnum disjungebat, erat 
inter ceteram planitiem mons saxeus, mediocri castello 
satis patens, in immensum editus, uno perangusto 
aditu relicto : nam omnis natura, velut opere atque 
consulto, praeceps. Quern locum Marius, quod ibi 
regis thesauri erant, summa vi capere intendit. Sed 
ea res forte, quam consilio melius gesta. Nam castello 
virorum atque armorum satis, magna vis frumenti et 
fons aquae, aggeribus turribusque et aliis machina- 
tionibus locus importunus, iter castellanorum angus- 
tum admodum, utrimque praecisum. Yineae cum in- 
genti periculo frustra agitabantur: nam quum eae 
paullum processerant, igni aut lapidibus corrumpe- 
bantur; milites neque pro opere consistere, propter 
iniquitatem loci, neque inter vineas sine periculo 
administrare ; optimus quisque cadere, aut sauciari; 
ceteris metus augeri. 

XCIII. At Marius, multis diebus et laboribus 
consumtis, anxius trahere cum animo suo omitteretne 
inceptum, quoniam frustra erat, an fortunam oppe- 
riretur, qua saepe prospere usus fuerat. Quae quum 
multos dies noctesque aestuans agitaret, forte quidam 
Ligus ex cohoftibus auxiliariis miles gregarius, cas- 
tris aquatum egressus, baud procul ab latere castelli, 
quod aversum proeliantibus erat, animum advertit 
inter saxa repentes cochleas : quarum quum unam 
atque alteram, dein plures peteret, studio legendi 
paullatim prope ad summum montis egressus est. 
Ubi postquam solitudinem intellexit, more humani 
ingenii cupido difficilia faciendi animum vertit. Et 
forte in eo loco grandis ilex coaluerat inter saxa, 
paullum modo prona, deinde flexa atque aucta in 



78 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

altitudinem, quo cuncta gignentium natura fert; cu- 
jus ramis modo, modo eminentibus saxis nisus Ligus 
castelli planitiem perscribit ; quod cuncti Numidae in- 
tenti proeliantibus aderant. Exploratis omnibus, quae 
mox usui fore ducebat, eadem regreditur, non temere, 
uti escenderat, sed tentans omnia et circumspiciens. 
Itaque Marium propere adit, acta edocet, hortatur, ab 
ea parte, qua ipse escenderat, castellum tenet; polli- 
cetur sese itineris periculique ducem. Marius cum 
Ligure, promissa ejus cognitum, ex praesentibus misit; 
quorum uti cuj usque ingenium erat, ita rem difficilem 
aut facilem nunciavere. Consulis animus tamen paul- 
lum arrectus. Itaque ex copia tubicinum et corni- 
cinum numero quinque quam velocissimos delegit, et 
cum his, praesidio qui forent, quatuor centuriones, 
omnesque Liguri par ere jubet, et ei negotio proximum 
diem constituit. 

XCIY. Sed ubi ex praecepto tempus visum, pa- 
ratis compositisque omnibus ad locum pergit. Cete- 
rum illi, qui ascensuri erant, praedocti ab duce, arma 
ornatumque mutaverant, capite atque pedibus nudis, 
uti prospectus nisusque per saxa f acilius foret ; super 
terga gladii et scuta, verum ea ISTumidica ex coriis, 
ponderis gratia simul, et offensa quo levius strepe- 
rent. Igitur praegrediens Ligus saxa et si quae vetus- 
tate radices eminebant laqueis vinciebat, quibus alle- 
vati facilius escenderent ; interdum timidos insolentia 
itineris levare manu, ubi paullo asperior ascensus, 
singulos prae se inermes mittere; deinde ipse cum 
illorum armis sequi, quae dubia nisu videbantur, po- 
tissimus tentare, ac saepius eadem ascendens descen- 
densque, dein statim digrediens, ceteris audaciam 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 79 

addere. Igitur din multumque fatigati tandem in 
castellum perveniunt, desertum ab ea parte, quod 
omnes, sicuti aliis diebus, adversum hostes aderant. 
Marius, ubi ex nunciis quae Ligus egerat cognovit, 
quamquam toto die intentos proelio Numidas ha- 
buerat, turn vero cobortatus milites et ipse extra 
vineas egressus, testudine acta succedere, et simul 
hostem tormentis sagittariisque et funditoribus emi- 
nus terrere. At Numidae saepe antea vineis Roma- 
norum subversis, item incensis, non castelli moenibus 
sese tutabantur, sed pro muro dies noetesque agitare ; 
maledicere Eomanis, ac Mario vecordiam objectare; 
militibus nostris Jugurtbae servitium minari; seeundis 
rebus feroces esse. Interim omnibus, Romanis hos- 
tibusque, proelio intentis, magna utrimque vi pro 
gloria atque imperio bis, illis pro salute certantibus, 
repente a tergo signa canere; ac primo mulieres et 
pueri, qui visum processerant, fugere; deinde uti 
quisque muro proximus erat, postremo cuncti, armati 
inermesque. Quod ubi accidit, eo acrius Eomani in- 
stare, fundere ac plerosque tantummodo sauciare, 
dein super occisorum corpora vadere, avidi gloriae, 
certantes murum petere, neque quemquam omnium 
praeda morari. Sic forte correcta Marii temeritas 
gloriam ex culpa invenit. 

XCY. Ceterum dum ea res geritur, L. Sulla 
quaestor cum magno equitatu in castra venit; quos 
uti ex Latio et a sociis cogeret Eomae relictus erat. 
Sed, quoniam tanti viri res admonuit, idoneum visum 
est, de natura cultuque ejus paucis dicere; neque enim 
alio loco de Sullae rebus dicturi sumus; et L. Sisenna, 
optime et diligentissime omnium, qui eas res dixere 



80 SALLUSTIT JUGURTHA. 

persecutus, paruni mini libero ore locutus videtur. 
Igitur Sulla gentis patriciae nobilis fuit, familia prope 
jam exstincta majorum ignavia ; litteris Graecis atque 
Latinis juxta atque doctissime eruditus, animo ingenti, 
cupidus voluptatum, sed gloriae cupidior, otio luxu- 
rioso esse; tamen ab negotiis numquam voluptas re- 
morata, nisi quod de uxore potuit honestius consuli ; 
facundus, callidus, et amicitia facilis; ad simulanda 
negotia altitudo ingenii incredibilis ; multarum rerum 
ac maxime pecuniae largitor. Atque illi, felicissimo 
omnium ante civilem victoriam, numquam super in- 
dustriam fortuna fuit; multique dubitavere, fortior 
an felicior esset : nam postea quae f ecerit incertum 
habeo pudeat magis an pigeat disserere. 

XCVL Igitur Sulla, ut supra dictum est, post- 
quam in Africam atque in castra Marii cum equitatu 
venit, rudis antea et ignarus belli, sollertissimus om 
nium in paucis tempestatibus factus est. Ad hoc 
milites benigne appellare ; multis rogantibus, aliis per 
se ipse dare beneficia, invitus accipere, sed ea prope- 
rantius quam aes mutuum reddere; ipse ab nullo re- 
petere, magis id laborare ut illi quam plurimi debe- 
rent; joca atque seria cum humillimis agere; in 
operibus, in agmine, atque ad vigilias multus adesse, 
neque interim, quod prava ambitio solet, consulis, aut 
cujusquam boni, famam laedere; tantummodo neque 
consilio neque manu priorem alium pati; plerosque 
antevenire. Queis rebus et artibus brevi Mario militi- 
busque carissimus factus. 

XCVII. At Jugurtha, postquam oppidum Cap- 
sam aliosque locos munitos et sibi utiles, simul et 
magnam pecuniam amiserat, ad Bocchum nuncios 



SALLUSTIT JUGURTHA. 81 

mittit, "quam primum in Numidiam copias adduce- 
ret; proelii faciendi tempus adesse." Quern ubi cunc- 
tari accepit et dubium belli atque pacis rationes 
trahere, rursus, uti antea, proximos ejus donis cor- 
rumpit, ipsique Mauro pollicetur Numidiae partem 
tertiam, si aut R-omani Africa cxpulsi, aut integris 
suis finibus bellum compositum foret. Eo praemio 
illectus Bocchus cum magna multitudine Jugurtham 
accedit. Ita amborum exercitu conjuncto Marium, 
jam in hiberna proficiscentem, vix decima parte die 
reliqua, invadunt, rati noctem, quae jam aderat, et 
victis sibi munimento fore, et si vicissent nullo im- 
pediment, quia locorum scientes erant; contra E,o- 
manis utrumque casum in tenebris difficiliorem fore. 
Igitur simul consul ex multis de hostium adventu cog- 
novit, et ipsi bostes aderant ; et, priusquam exercitus 
aut instrui, aut sarcinas colligere, denique antequam 
signum aut imperium ullum accipere quivit, equites 
Mauri atque Gaetuli, non acie neque ullo more proelii, 
sed catervatim, uti quosque fors conglobaverat, in nos- 
tros concurruntj qui omnes trepidi improviso metu, 
ac tamen virtutis memores, aut arma capiebant, aut 
capientes alios ab hostibus defensabant; pars equos 
escendere, obviam ire hostibus; pugna latrocinio ma- 
gis quam proelio similis fieri; sine signis, sine ordi- 
nibus, equites pedites permixti caedere alios, alios ob- 
truncare, multos, contra adversos acerrime pugnantes, 
ab tergo circum venire ; neque virtus neque arma satis 
tegere, quod hostes numero plures et undique circum- 
fusi; denique Romani veteres [novique], et ob ea 
scientes belli, si quos locus aut casus conjunxerat, 
jug. 6 



82 SALLVSTII JUGURTHA. 

orbes facere; atque ita ab omnibus partibus simul 
tecti et instructi hostium vim sustentabant. 

XOYIII. Neque in eo tarn aspero negotio ter- 
ritus Marius ant magis, qnam antea, demisso animo 
fuit, sed cum turma sua, quam ex fortissimis magis 
quam familiarissimis paraverat, vagari passim, ac 
modo laborantibus suis succurrere, modo hostes, ubi 
confertissimi obstiterant, invadere; manu consulere 
militibus, quoniam imperare conturbatis omnibus non 
poterat. Jamque dies consumptus erat, quum tamen 
barbari nihil remittere, atque, uti reges praeceperant, 
noctem pro se rati, acrius instare. Turn Marius ex 
copia rerum consilium trahit, atque, uti suis receptui 
locus esset, colles duos propinquos inter se occupat; 
quorum in uno, castris parum amplo, fons aquae mag- 
nus erat, alter usui opportunus, quia magna parte 
editus et praeceps pauca munimenta quaerebat. Cete- 
rum apud aquam Sullam cum equitibus noctem agi- 
tare jubet; ipse paullatim dispersos milites, neque 
minus hostibus conturbatis, in unum contrahit; dein 
cunctos pleno gradu in collem subducit. Ita reges loci 
difficultate coacti, proelio deterrentur; neque tamen 
suos longius abire sinunt, sed utroque colle multi- 
tudine circumdato effusi consedere. Dein crebris ig- 
nibus factis plerumque noctis barbari suo moro laetari, 
exsultare, strepere vocibus, et ipsi duces feroces, quia 
non fugerent, pro victoribus agere. Sed ea cuncta 
Romanis ex tenebris et editioribus locis facilia visu 
magnoque hortamento erant. 

XCIX. Plurimum vero Marius imperitia hostium 
confirmatus quam maximum silentium haberi jubet; 
ne signa quidem, uti per vigilias solebant, canere. 



SALLUSTII JUGTJRTHA. 83 

Deinde, ubi lux adventabat, defessis jam hostibus et 
paullo ante somno captis, de improviso vigiles, item 
oohortium, turmarum, legionum tubicines simul omnes 
signa canere, milites clamorem tollere atque portis 
erumpere. Mauri atque Gaetuli, ignoto et horribili 
sonitu repente exeiti, neque fugere, neque arma ca- 
pere, neque omnino facere aut providere quidquam 
poterant; ita cunctos, strepitu, clamore, nullo subve- 
niente, nostris instantibus, tumultu, terrore formido 
quasi vecordia, ceperat. Denique omnes fusi fugati- 
que, anna et signa militaria pleraque capta, pluresque 
eo proelio, quam omnibus superioribus, interemti; nam 
somno et metu insolito impedita fuga. 

0. Dein Marius, uti coeperat, in hiberna proficis- 
citur ; quae propter commeatum in oppidis maritimis 
agere decreverat ; neque tamen victoria secors aut in- 
solens f actus ; sed pariter atque in conspectu hostium 
quadrato agmine incedere. Sulla cum equitatu apud 
dextimos, in sinistra A. Manlius cum funditoribus et 
sagittariis, praeterea cohortes Ligurum curabat; pri- 
mos et extremos cum expeditis manipulis tribunos 
locaverat. Perfugae, minime cari et regionum scien- 
tissimi, hostium iter explorabant : simul consul, quasi 
nullo imposito, omnia providere ; apud omnes adesse ; 
laudare, increpare merentes. Ipse armatus intentus- 
que, item milites cogebat; neque secus, atque iter 
facere, castra munire, excubitum in portas cohortes 
ex legionibus, pro castris equites auxiliarios mittere; 
praeterea alios super vallum in munimentis locare, 
vigilias ipse circumire, non tarn diffidentia futurum, 
quae imperavisset, quam uti militibus exaequatus cum 
imperatore labos volentibus esset. Et sane Marius 

6—2 



84 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

illo et aliis temporibus Jugurthini belli pudore magis 
quam malo exercitum coercebat ; quod multi per am- 
bitionem fieri aiebant, pars, quod a pueritia consuetam 
duritiam et alia, quae ceteri miserias vocant, voluptati 
habuisset: nisi tamen res publica, pariter ac saevis- 
simo imperio, bene atque deeore gesta. 

CI. Igitur quarto denique die haud longe ab 
oppido Cirta undique simul speculatores citi sese os- 
tendunt, qua re hostes adesse intelligitur. Sed quia 
diversi redeuntes, alius ab alia parte atque omnes 
idem significabant, consul incertus, quonam modo 
aeiem instrueret, nullo ordine commutato, adversum 
omnia paratus ibidem opperitur. Ita Jugurtham spes 
frustrata, qui copias in quatuor partes distribuerat, 
ratus ex omnibus aeque aliquos ab tergo hostibus ven- 
tures. Interim Sulla, quern primum hostes attigerant, 
cohortatus suos, turmatim et quam maxime eonfertis 
equis ipse aliique Mauros invadunt, ceteri in loco 
manentes ab jaculis eminus emissis corpora tegere, et 
si qui in manus venerant obtruncare. Dum eo modo 
equites proeliantur, Bocchus cum peditibus, quos Yo- 
lux filius ejus adduxerat, neque in priore pugna, in 
itinere morati, affuerant, postremam Bomanorum 
aciem invadunt. Turn Marius apud primos agebat, 
quod ibi Jugurtha cum plurimis erat. Dein Numida, 
cognito Bocchi adventu, clam cum paucis ad pedites 
convertit ; ibi Latine (nam apud Numantiam loqui di- 
dicerat) exclamat: "nostros frustra pugnare; paullo 
ante Marium sua manu interfectum ; " simul gladium 
sanguine oblitum ostendere, quern in pugna satis im- 
pigre occiso pedite nostro cruentaverat. Quod ubi 
milites accepere, magis atrocitate rei quam fide nuncii 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 85 

terrentur : simulque barbari amnios tollere, et in per- 
culsos Bomanos acrius incedere. Jamque paullum ab 
fuga aberant, quum Sulla, proiligatis iis, quos ad- 
versum ierat, Mauris ab latere incurrit. Bocchus 
statim avertitur. At Jugurtha, dum sustentare suos 
et prope jam adeptam victoriam retinere cupit, cir- 
cumventus ab equitibus, dextra, sinistra omnibus oc- 
cisis, solus inter tela hostium vitabundus erumpit. At- 
que interim Marius fugatis equitibus occurrit auxilio 
suis, quos pelli jam acceperat. Denique hostes undi- 
que f usi. Turn spectaculum horribile in campis paten- 
tibus ; sequi, fugere, occidi, capi ; equi, viri afflicti, ac 
multi vulneribus acceptis neque fugere posse, neque 
quietem pati; niti modo, ac statim concidere : postremo 
omnia, qua visus erat, constrata telis, armis, cadave- 
ribus, et inter ea humus infecta sanguine. 

OIL Postea loci consul baud dubie jam victor 
pervenit in oppidum Cirtam, quo initio profectus in- 
tenderat. Eo post diem quintum, quam iterum bar - 
bari male pugnaverant, legati a Boccho veniunt, qui 
regis verbis ab Mario petivere, " duo quam fidissimos 
ad eum mitteret : velle de suo et de populi B-omani 
commodo cum iis disserere." Ille statim L. Sullam et 
A. Manlium ire jubet. Qui quamquam acciti ibant, 
tamen placuit verba apud regem facere, uti ingenium 
aut aversum flecterent, aut cupidum pacis vehemen- 
tius accenderent. Itaque Sulla, cujus facundiae, non 
aetati, a Manlio concessum, pauca verba hujuscemodi 
locutus : "Bex Bocche, magna nobis laetitia est, quum 
te talem virum di monuere, uti aliquando pacem quam 
bellum malles, neu te optimum cum pessimo omnium 
Jugurtha miscendo commaculares ; simul nobis de- 



SG SALLUSTII JUGUETEA. 

meres acerbam necessitudinem, pariter te errantem et 
ilium sceleratissimum persequi. Ad hoc populo Eo- 
mano jam a principio [inopi] melius visum, amicos 
quam servos quaerere; tutiusque rati volentibus quam 
coactis imperitare. Tibi vero nulla opportunior nos- 
tra amicitia; primum, quod procul absumus, in quo 
offensae minimum, gratia par ac si prope adessemus ; 
dein, quod parentes abunde habemus, amicorum neque 
nobis neque cuiquam omnium satis. Atque hoc uti- 
nam a principio tibi placuisset! profecto ex populo 
Romano ad hoc tempus multo plura bona aceepisses, 
quam mala perpessus es. Sed, quoniam humanarum 
rerum Fortuna pleraque regit, cui scilicet placuisse te 
et vim et gratiam nostram experiri, nunc, quando per 
illam licet, festina atque ut coepisti perge. Multa 
atque opportuna habes, quo facilius errata officiis 
superes. Postremo hoc in pectus tuum demitte, num- 
quam populum Romanum beneficiis victum : nam, 
bello quid valeat, tute scis." Ad ea Bocchus placide 
et benigne ; simul pauca pro delicto suo verba f acit : 
"se non hostili animo, sed ob regnum tutandum, arma 
cepisse : nam ISTumidiae partem, unde vi Jugurtham 
expulerit, jure belli suam factam, earn vastari ab 
Mario pati nequivisse; praeterea, missis antea Romam 
legatis, repulsum ab amicitia. Oeterum Vetera omit- 
tere, ac turn, si per Marium liceret, legatos ad sena- 
tum missurum." Dein, copia facta, animus barbari 
ab amicis nexus, quos Jugurtha, cognita legatione 
Sullae et Manlii, metuens id quod parabatur, donis 
corruperat. 

CIII. Marius interea, exercitu in hibernis com- 
posito, cum expeditis cohortibus et parte equitatus 



SALLUSTII JUGUBTHA. 87 

proficiscitur in loca sola, obsessum turrim regiam, 
quo Jugurtha perfugas omnes praesidium imposuerat. 
Turn rursus Bocchus, seu reputando, quae sibi duobus 
proeliis venerant, seu admonitus ab amicis, quos in- 
corruptos Jugurtha reliquerat, ex onmi copia neces- 
sariorum quinque deligit, quorum et fides cognita, et 
ingenia validissima erant. Eos ad Marium, ac dein, 
si placeat, Romam, legatos ire jubet; agendarum 
rerum, et quocumque modo belli componendi, licen- 
tiam permittit. Illi mature ad hibema Homanorum 
proficiscuntur: deinde, in itinere a Gaetulis latronibus 
circumventi spoliatique, pavidi, sine decore ad Sullam 
perfugiunt, quern consul in expeditionem proficiscens 
pro praetore reliquerat. Eos ille non pro vanis hosti- 
bus, ut meriti erant, sed accurate ac liberaliter habuit; 
qua re barbari et famam Homanorum avaritiae falsam, 
et Sullam ob munificentiam in sese amicum rati. Nam 
etiam turn largitio multis ignara, munificus nemo puta- 
batur, nisi pariter volens, dona omnia in benignitate 
habebantur. Igitur quaestori mandata Bocchi pate- 
faciunt; simul ab eo petunt, uti fautor consultorque 
sibi adsit; copias, fidem, magnitudinem regis sui, et 
alia, quae aut utilia aut benevolentiae esse credebant, 
oratione extollunt; dein, Sulla omnia pollicito, docti, 
quo modo apud Marium, item apud senatum, verba 
facerent, circiter dies xl. ibidem opperiuntur. c 

CIY. Marius postquam, confecto, quo intenderat, 
negotio, Cirtam redit, de adventu legatorum certior 
f actus, illosque et Sullam ab Utica venire jubet, item 
L. Bellienum praetorem, praeterea omnes undique 
senatorii ordinis, quibuscum mandata Bocchi cog- 
noscit. Legatis potestas eundi Romam fit ab con- 



88 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

sule : interea induciae postulabantur. Ea Sullae et 
plerisque plaeuere : pauci ferocius decernunt, scilicet 
ignari humanarum rerum, quae fluxae et mobiles sem- 
per in adversa mutantur. Ceterum Mauri, impetratis 
omnibus rebus, tres Romam profecti cum Cn. Octavio 
B,uf o, qui quaestor stipendium in Af ricam portayerat ; 
duo ad regem redeunt. Ex bis Bocchus, quum cetera, 
turn maxime benignitatem et studium Sullae, lubens 
accepit. Bomae legatis ejus, postquam errasse regem 
et Jugurtbae scelere lapsum deprecati sunt, amicitiam 
et foedus petentibus hoc modo respondetur : " Senatus 
et populus Romanus beneficii et injuriae memor esse 
solet: ceterum Boccho, quoniam poenitet, delicti 
gratiam facit: foedus et amicitia dabuntur, cum me- 
ruerit." 

CV. Queis rebus cognitis Bocchus per litteras a 
Mario petivit, uti Sullam ad se mitteret; cujus arbi- 
tratu de communibus negotiis consuleretur. Is missus 
cum praesidio equitum atque peditum, item fundi - 
torum Balearium; praeterea sagittarii, et cohors Pe- 
ligna cum velitaribus armis, itineris properandi caussa, 
neque his secus atque aliis armis adversum tela hos- 
tium, quod ea levia sunt, muniti. Sed in itinere, 
quinto denique die, Yolux films Bocchi repente in 
campis patentibus cum mille non amplius equitibus 
sese ostendit ; qui temere et effuse euntes Sullae aliis- 
que omnibus et numerum ampliorum vero et hostilem 
metum efficiebant. Igitur sese quisque expedire, arma 
atque tela tentare, intendere : timor aliquantus sed 
spes amplior, quippe victoribus, et adversum eos, quos 
saepe vicerant. Interim equites, exploratum prae- 
missi, rem, uti erat, quietam nunciant. 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 89 

CYI. Yolux adveniens quaestorem appellat dicit- 
que se a patre Bocclio obviam illis simul, et praesidio, 
niissum. Deinde eum et proximum diem sine metu 
conjnncti eunt. Post ubi castra locata et diei vesper 
erat, repente Maurus incerto vultu ad Sullam accurrit 
dicitque sibi ex speculatoribus cognitum, Jugurtham 
haud proeul abesse ; sinml uti noetu clam seeum pro- 
fugeret rogat atque hortatur. Ille animo feroci negat 
" se toties fusum Numidam pertimescere ; virtuti suo- 
rum satis credere ; etiam si certa pestis adesset, man- 
surum potius, quam proditis quos ducebat turpi fuga 
incertae ac forsitan post paullo morbo interiturae 
vitae parceret." Ceterum ab eodem monitus uti noctu 
proneiscerentur, consilium approbat, ac statim milites 
coenatos esse, in castris ignes quam creberrimos fieri, 
dein prima vigilia silentio egredi jubet. Jamque noc- 
turno itinere fessis omnibus Sulla pariter cum ortu 
solis castra metabatur, quum equites Mauri nunciant 
Jugurtham circiter duum millium intervallo ante eos 
consedisse. Quod postquam auditum est, turn vero 
ingens metus nostros invadit: credere se proditos 
a Yoluce, et insidiis circumventos. Ac fuere, qui 
dicerent manu vindicandum, neque apud ilium tantum 
scelus inultum relinquendum. 

CYII. At Sulla, quamquam eadem existimabat, 
tamen ab injuria Maurum prohibet: suos hortatur, 
a uti fortem animum gererent: saepe antea paucis stre- 
nuis adversum multitudinem bene pugnatum : quanto 
sibi in proelio minus pepercissent, tanto tutiores fore : 
nee quemquam decere, qui manus armaverit, ab in- 
ermis pedibus auxilium petere, in maxim o metu 
nudum et caecum corpus ad hostes vertere." Deinde 



90 SALLUSTII JUGUETHA. 

Yolucem, quoniam hostilia faceret, Joveni Maximum 
obtestatus, ut sceleris atque perfidiae Bocchi testis 
adesset, ex castris abire jubet. Ille lacrimans orare, 
" ne ea crederet : nihil dolo factum, ac magis callidi- 
tate Jugurthae, cui, videlicet speculanti, iter suum 
cognitum esset. Ceterum, quoniam neque ingentem 
multitudinem haberet, et spes opesque ejus ex patre 
suo penderent, credere, ilium nihil palam ausurum, 
quum ipse filius testis adesset: quare optimum factum 
videri, per media ejus castra palam transire : sese, vel 
praemissis vel ibidem relictis Mauris, solum cum 
Sulla iturum." Ea res, ut in tali negotio, probata; ac 
statim profecti, quia de improviso acciderant, dubio at- 
que haesitante Jugurtha, incolumes transeunt. Deinde 
paucis diebus, quo ire intenderant, perventum. 

CYIII. Ibi cum Boccho Numida quidam, Aspar 
nomine, multum et familiariter agebat, praemissus ab 
Jugurtha, postquam Sullam accitum audierat, orator, 
et subdole speculatum Bocchi consilia; praeterea 
Dabar, Massugradae filius, ex gente Masinissae, ce- 
terum materno genere impar (nam pater ejus ex con- 
cubina ortus erat), Mauro ob ingenii multa bona 
carus acceptusque; quern Bocchus, fidum esse Romanis 
multis antea tempestatibus expertus, illico ad Sullam 
nunciatum mittit, " paratum sese facere, quae populus 
Bomanus vellet : colloquio diem, locum, tempus, ipse 
deligeret: consulta sese omnia cum illo integra habere: 
neu Jugurthae legatum pertimesceret quo res com- 
munis licentius gereretur ; nam ab insidiis ejus aliter 
caveri nequivisse." Sed ego comperior Bocchum magis 
Punica fide, quam ob ea quae praedicabat, simul Bo- 
manos et Numidam spe pacis attinuisse, multumque 



SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 91 

cum animo suo volvere solitum, Jugurtham Romanis, 
an illi Sullam, traderet; lubidinem adversum nos, 
metum pro nobis suasisse. 

CIX. Igitur Sulla respondit, "pauca se coram 
Aspare locuturum; cetera occulte, aut nullo, aut quam 
paucissimis praesentibus ; " simul edocet, quae sibi re- 
sponderentur. Postquam sicuti voluerat congressi, 
dicit, " se missum a consule venisse quaesitum ab eo, 
pacem an bellum agitaturus foret." Turn rex, uti 
praeceptum fuerat, post diem decimum redire jubet; 
ac, nihil etiam nunc decrevisse, sed illo die respon- 
surum. Deinde ambo in sua castra digressi. Sed 
ubi plerumque noctis processit Sulla a Boccho occulte 
accersitur; ab utroque tantummodo fidi interpretes 
adhibentur; praeterea Dabar internuncius, sanctus vir, 
et ex sententia ambobus. Ac statim sic rex incipit : 

CX. "Numquam ego ratus sum fore, uti rex 
maximus in hac terra et omnium, quos novi, privato 
homini gratiam deberem. Et mehercule, Sulla, ante 
te cognitum, multis orantibus, aliis ultro egomet opem 
tuli, nullius indigui. Id imminutum, quod ceteri do- 
lere solent, ego laetor; fuerit mihi [pretium] eguisse 
aliquando amicitiae tuae, qua apud animum meum 
nihil carius habeo. Id adeo experiri licet : arma, 
viros, pecuniam, postremo quidquid animo lubet, sume, 
utere; et, quoad vives, numquam tibi redditam gratiam 
putaveris; semper apud me integra erit: denique nihil, 
me sciente, frustra voles. Nam, ut ego aestimo, re- 
gem armis quam munifLcentia vinci minus nagitiosum. 
Ceterum de re publica vestra, cujus curator hue missus 
es, paucis accipe. Bellum ego populo Homano neque 
feci, neque factum umquam volui; fines meos adver- 



92 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

sum armatos armis tutatus sum. Id omitto, quando 
vobis ita placet ; gerite, uti vultis, cum Jugurtha hel- 
ium. Ego flumen Mulucham, quod inter me et Micip- 
sam fuit, non egrediar, neque Jugurtham id intrare 
sinam. Praeterea, si quid meque vobisque dignum 
petiveris, haud repulsus abibis." 

CXI. Ad ea Sulla pro se breviter et modice ; de 
pace et de communibus multis disseruit. Denique 
regi patefecit, " quod polliceatur, senatum et populum 
Homanum, quoniam amplius armis valuissent, non in 
gratiam habituros: faciendum aliquid, quod illorum 
magis quam sua retulisse videretur; id adeo in promptu 
esse, quoniam Jugurthae copiam haberet; quern si 
Romanis tradidisset, fore, uti illi plurimum deberetur, 
amicitiam, foedus, ]STumidiae partem, quam nunc pe- 
teret, tunc ultro adventuram." Rex primo negitare : 
"adfinitatem, cognationem, praeterea foedus inter- 
venisse; ad hoc metuere, ne nuxa fide usus, popu- 
larium animos averteret, queis et Jugurtha carus, et 
Romani invisi erant." Denique, saepius fatigatus, 
lenitur, et ex voluntate Sullae omnia se facturum 
promittit. Ceterum ad simulandam pacem, cujus 
Numida, defessus hello, avidissimus, quae utilia visa, 
constituunt. Ita composito dolo digrediuntur. 

CXII. At rex postero die Asparem, Jugurthae 
legatum, appellat, dicitque "sibi per Dabarem ex Sulla 
cognitum, posse condicionibus helium poni; quamoh- 
rem regis sui sententiam exquireret." Ille laetus in 
castra Jugurthae venit. Deinde, ab illo cuncta edoc- 
tus, properato itinere post diem octavum redit ad Boc- 
chum, et ei nunciat " Jugurtham cupere omnia, quae 
imperarentur, f acere ; sed Mario parum fidere : saepe 



8ALLU8TII JUGURTHA. 93 

antea cum imperatoribus Homanis pacem conventam 
frustra fuisse. Ceterum si ambobus consultum et 
ratam pacem vellet, daret operam, ut una ab omnibus 
quasi de pace in colloquium veniretur, ibique sibi 
Sullam traderet; quum talem virum in potestate habe- 
ret, turn fore, uti jussu senatus atque populi Romani 
foedus fieret: neque hominem nobilem, non sua ig- 
navia sed ob rempublicam, in hostium potestate re- 
lictum iri." 

CXIII. Haec Maurus secum ipse diu volvens 
tandem promisit; ceterum dolo an vere cunctatus, 
parum comperimus. Sed plerumque regiae volun- 
tates, ut vehementes, sic mobiles, saepe ipsae sibi 
adversae. Postea tempore et loco constituto, in col- 
loquium uti de pace veniretur, Bocchus Sullam modo, 
modo Jugurthae legatum appellare, benigne habere, 
idem ambobus polliceri. Illi pariter laeti, ac spei 
bonae pleni. Sed nocte ea, quae proxima fuit ante 
diem colloquio decretum, Maurus adhibitis amicis, ac 
statim, immutata voluntate, remotis, dicitur secum 
ipse multa agitavisse, vultu corporis pariter atque 
animo varius; quae scilicet, tacente ipso, occulta 
pectoris patefecisse. Tamen postremo Sullam accer- 
siri jubet, et ex ejus sententia Numidae insidias tendit. 
Deinde, ubi dies advenit, et ei nunciatum est, Ju- 
gurtham baud procul abesse, cum paucis amicis et 
quaestore nostro, quasi obvius honoris caussa procedit 
in tumulum facillimum visu insidiantibus. Eodem 
Numida cum plerisque necessariis suis inermis, uti 
dictum erat, accedit; ac statim signo dato undique 
simul ex insidiis invaditur. Ceteri obtruncati: Ju- 



94 SALLUSTII JUGUETHA. 

gurtha Sullae vinctus traditur, et ab eo ad Marium 
dednctus est. 

CXIY. Per idem tempus adversum Gallos ab 
ducibus nostris Q. Caepione et M. Manlio male pugna- 
tum; quo metu Italia omnis contremuerat. Illique 
et inde ad nostram memoriam Romani sic habuere, 
alia omnia virtuti suae prona esse; cum Gallis pro 
salute, non pro gloria certare. Sed postquam bellum 
in Numidia confectum, et Jugurtham vinctum adduci 
E-omam, nunciatum est, Marius consul absens factus, 
et ei decreta provincia Gallia ; isque Kalendis Janua- 
riis magna gloria consul triumphavit. Ea tempestate 
spes atque opes civitatis in illo sitae. 



NOTES. 



CHAPTER I. 

1. Falso queritur de natura sua] It deserves to be 
remarked, as a proof of the nicety of ear cultivated by the 
Romans, that Quintilian (Inst. Orat. ix. 4. 77) complains of the 
first clause of this sentence as being '^vpvdfxos, rhythmical. He 
has been pointing out some instances of metrical clauses occur- 
ring in prose composition, and goes on to say, nee minore autem 
cura vitandum est quicquid gvpvd/uop quale est apud Sallustium, 
falso queritur de natura sua. Such nice perceptions had been 
lost in the time of the grammarian Diomedes. He observes, 
Sallustium quoque dicunt principio Jugurthae a rhythmo coe- 
pisse. Yerum hoc totum genus reprehensionis ejusmodi est, ut 
si calumniatores istos audiamus sit conticescendum ; quia nulla 
non pars orationis in aliquam rhythmi aut metri speciem potest 
figurari. Putsch. Gramm. Latin. 464. 

2. Contra] i. q. e contrario, ex altera parte, "on the con- 
trary." 

3. Reputando...invenies] "You will discover upon re- 
flection." 

4. Sed dux] Haec Stoicorum magniloquentiam sapiunt. 
Gerlach. Comp. Apuleius, Apolog. p. 486, regalis animi pars, 
ratione pollens, verticem hominis velut arcem et regiam in- 
sedit." dux atque imperator, "leader and ruler." The two 
words should be distinguished, but dux is often used for impe- 
rator in poetry for the sake of metre. Stat. Sylv. iii. 3. 52, 
Hanc (Romam) ducibus fraenare datum. 

5. Grassatur] Grassor, frequent, from gradior, signifies 
1. idling, lounging, hanging on or about; hence 2. applied to 
flatterers and parasites who fawn upon the great (grassari anti- 
qui ponebant pro adulari. Festus), to ruffians and footpads, 
who infest the highways; and 3. to undertaking, setting about 
any enterprise, in a good or bad sense, especially with zeal and 
resolution. The verb is generally intransitive, sometimes fol- 
lowed by in or ad : in poetical language it is used transitively, 
as Stat. Theb. viii. 571, grassatus cuspide turmas. 



96 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

6. Pollens potensque] Pollens, "abounding in strength;" 
potens, "efficient in the use of one's strength." Doederl. Synon. 
iv. 163. But such nice distinctions are not always observed. 
The phrase was probably familiar. Comp. Orell. Inscript. i. 303, 
Herculi victori pollenti potenti invicto. 

7. Ad inertiam...pessum datus est] "He has sunk 
into sloth, &c." The accus. of a noun, perhaps, i. q_. {Svacrbs, 
"the bottom," used adverbially (subaud. secundum): pessum 
dari "to be sent to the bottom." The notion of its meaning, 
" cast under foot," as if connected with pes, is derived, perhaps, 
from the apparent similitude of the words. 

8. Usus...accusatur] An anacoluthon : the construction 
in which the subject agrees with usus is dropped, and another 
commenced. Transl. "But if a man, ensnared by unworthy 
desires, has sunk into sloth and sensual voluptuousness, brief is 
his enjoyment of his pernicious appetites : his strength, his time, 
his talents, waste away through idleness, and then forsooth, the 
infirmity of nature bears the blame." 

9. Defluxere] have come to an end. Comp. Senec. Be 
Brev. Vitae, i. ubi vita per luxum ac negligentiam defluit... 
quam ire non intelleximus transisse sentimus. Hor. i. Ep. 2. 
42, Busticus expectat dum defluat amnis. 

10. Auctores] Scil. culpae, " The culprits themselves." 

11. Multum] " In many cases ; " "frequently." 

12. Neque regerentur, etc.] Homines is the subject to 
the verbs regerentur and regerent. Neque...et: men would not, 
on the one hand, be ruled by, but would themselves rule over 
chance ; and, on the other, would arrive at such a pitch of great- 
ness, as instead of being mere mortals, to become in fame im- 
mortal. 

CHAPTEB H. 

1. Anima] Anima is the principle of life: animus, of 
thought and will. So Nonius, v. 20, animo sapimus, anima 
vivimus. Here anima is used for animus, figuratively, as the 
vivifying principle of intelligence, which distinguishes man from 
the brutes. In the following clause, animus is employed more 
correctly. 

2. Praeclara facies] "Bemarkable beauty." Fades for 
beauty generally. Juv. x. 293, Sed vetat optari faciem Lucretia 
qualem Ipsa habuit. Lucan, x. 61, facie Spartana nocenti. 

3. Ut initium, sic finis est] "As they have a beginning, 
so have they an end." Comp. Cic. de Off i. 27, justa omnia 
decora sunt, injusta contra ut turpia sic indecora. 



NOTES. 97 

4. Incorruptus] i. e. qui corrumpi nequit. Tac. Hist. 
i. 35, G-alba minantibus intrepidus, adversus blandientes incor- 
ruptus ; with the force of an adj. in -bilis. 

5. Corporis gaudiis] Cicero, de Fin. ii. 4, restricts gau- 
dium to mental pleasures, while voluntas, he says, may be 
used either of mind or body. But as Epicurus affirmed, that 
even the pleasures of the body were really referable to mental 
perceptions, he allows that, in this sense, the body can be said 
gaudere. Tusc. v. 33. 

6. Artes animi] "Occupations which exercise the intel- 
lect." 

CHAPTEK III. 

1. Ex his] " Of these occupations." 

2. Magistratus et imperia] Those who held magistratus, 
soil, dictators, consuls, praetors, censors, &c, elected by the 
people at the comitia centuriata, had civil imperium of various 
kinds in the city, and were said in imperio esse; when any 
such officers went into the provinces, they exercised military 
imperium through a lex curiata, and were then said cum im- 
perio esse. 

3. Honos] In its technical sense, " civic distinction," i. q. 
honores. Liv. xlii. 22, quo die novi magistratus inituri erant 
honor em. 

4. Is fait] Scil. is honos. So Kritz reads, on the author- 
ity of several MSS. The more common reading is jus or vis, 
neither of which words gives a satisfactory sense. 

5. Utique] So the MSS. generally, but omitted in most 
editions : the word implies forsooth, or, as they think. 

6. Patriam aut parentes] Comp. Catil. 6, patriam pa- 
rentesque armis tegere. Jugur. 87, armis patriam parentesque 
tegi, where parentes can only mean parents, or generally rela- 
tives. But parentes is used sometimes for subjects, i. q. obedi- 
entes : as Jug. 102, parentes abunde habemus, amicorum nun- 
quam satis fuit. Here the disjunctive aut marks an opposition 
between the two objects, and parentes may best be construed 
"subjects." 

7. Importunum est] "Is inconvenient, injurious." 
However much the usurper may employ his power to reform 
abuses, still the revolution by which he has risen will engender 
worse evils. These remarks are supposed to point to the usur- 
pation of Caesar, or of the second Triumvirate. 

JUG. 7 . 



98 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

8. Quaerere] i. q. quaerendo consequi. Comp. Jugur. 85, 
hae sunt meae imagines, haec nobilitas, quae egomet plurimis 
laboribus et periculis quaesivi : and again, 87, 89 ; Liv. xxv. 6. 

9. Gratificari] The infin. depends upon the combined 
noun and verb lubido tenet, i. q. juvat. So Gatil. 30, quibus 
mos erat (i. e. qui solebant), vendere. It is unnecessary to 
explain the infin. in these places as put for the gerund. Decus 
gratificari, i. q. decus gratis concedere, "to sacrifice honour 
and liberty." 

CHAPTER IV. 

1. Ceterum] "However, further," sometimes in opposi- 
tion, sometimes in addition, to what has gone before; a word 
of very frequent occurrence in the Jugurtha. 

2. Quae ingenio exercentur] i. e. tractantur> "which mind 
has to do with." 

3. Memoria] Objectively, i. q. memoratio, "the narra- 
tion." 

4. Per insolentiam] "From vanity." 

5. Studium meum] Comp. Tac. Ann. xiv. 43, evidently 
in imitation of this passage: ne nimio amore antiqui moris 
studium meum extollere viderer. 

6. Salutare plefoem] The candidate saluted and took by 
the hand, prensavit, the citizens whose votes he solicited. 
Comp. Liv. xxiii. 4, Hinc senatores, omissa dignitatis liber- 
tatisque memoria, plebem adulari, salutare, benigne invitare, 
apparatis accipere epulis. Cicero views the custom on its 
favourable side : de Petit. Consul. 7, nam in caeteris molestiis 
habet hoc tamen petitio commodi, ut possis honeste, quod in 
cetera vita non queas, quoscumque velis adjungere ad amici- 
tiam; quibuscum si alio tempore agas, ut te utantur, absurde 
facere videare ; in petitione autem nisi id agas, et cum multis 
et diligenter, nullus petitor esse videare. Comp. Cic. de Off. ii. 
16. When Crassus sued for the consulship he feasted the 
whole Roman people at ten thousand tables. 

7. Quibus ego temporifous] "The circumstances of the 
times under which I obtained offices." For the offices thus 
obtained by Sallust, see the Introduction, p. xi. 

8. Quae genera hominum] "The class of people." 
Upon this point Sallust speaks with bitterness, having been 
himself ejected from the senate for imputed immorality by the 
censors, in the year 704. But he alludes particularly to the 



NOTES, 99 

foreigners, soldiers, and other unworthy characters, who were 
thrust into the order by Caesar. Comp. Suet. Jul. 80, Pere- 
grinis in Senatum allectis libellus propositus est : bonum fac- 
tum: ne quis Senatori novo curiam monstrare velit; &c. 

9. Q. Maximum] Q. Fabius Maximus, surnamed Cunc- 
tator. 

10. P. Scipionem] Scipio Africanus the elder, the most 
illustrious of the name. 

11. Imagines] " The images :" i.e. waxen busts " of their 
ancestors." The basts of persons who had attained to curule 
magistracies were preserved in the family mansion (porticibus 
disponit avos, Juv. vi 163 ; exornent undique cerae atria, viii. 
19), and displayed publicly at the funerals of their descendants. 
Hor. Epod. 8. 11: 

Esto beata, funus atque imagines 
Ducant triumphales tuum. 

12. Scilicet] " Forsooth, they said," &c. 

13. Non ceram, neque figuram] "Neither the material 
of wax, nor the likeness." 

14. Eorum famam] "The renown of the former, i.e. of 
the ancestors." If there is any distinction here between the 
two words, fama may refer to the "extent," gloria to the 
* ' degree ' ' of their reputation . 

15. His moribus] ' ' In the present condition of public 
virtue ; " i. e. when public morals are so depraved. Comp. 
Liv. vi. 4, Capitolium...opus vel in hac magnificentia urbis 
conspiciendum. Cic. de Divin. ii. 2, quod munus reipublicae 
majus offerre possimus, quam si docemus atque erudimus 
juventutem, his praesertim moribus. So Lucan, ix. 190, makes 
Cato say of Pompey : 

Civis obit multo majoribus impar 

Nosse modum juris, sed in hoc tamen utilis aevo. 

16. Nobilitatem antevenire] " To outstrip the nobles." 

17. Furtim et per latrocinia] i. e. clandestinis insidiis, ut 
fures, et vim inferentes ut latrones. Dietsch. 

18. Altius] i. q. in mare altum. "The wide open sea." 
So, naves in altum provectae, Caes. B. Gall. iv. 28. 

19. Redeo] "I resume the intention I have professed of 
writing a history. " 



7—2 



100 S'ALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 



CHAPTER V. 

1. Varia victoria] Abl. case, as in Justin, iv. 2, diuque 
varia victoria cum tyrannis dimicatum : "sometimes the Ro- 
mans were victorious, sometimes the Numidians." 

2. Obviam ifrum est] " Was opposed." Late writers used 
a verb obviare, as Macrob. Sat. vii. 2, quibus obviandum non 
erat. 

3. Permiscuit] Comp. Lucan, iii. 138: 

Non usque adeo permiscuit irnis 
Longus summa dies, ut non si voce Metelli 
Serventur leges, malint a Caesare tolli. 

4. Uti studiis civilibus, etc.] "The vehemence of party 
strife resulted in war and the desolation of Italy." Lucan 
seems to have referred to this passage when about to write of 
Curio's African campaign. See Phars. iv. 687 : 

Nee tantum studiis civi'ibus arma parabat, 
Privatae sed bella dabat Juba concitus irae. 
Hunc quoque quo superos humanaque polluit anno &c. 

Again, the vastitas Italiae is referred to in i. 28 : 

Horrida quod dumis multosque inarata per annos 
Hesperia est... 

...alta sedent civilis vulnera dextrae. 

5. Supra] i.e. ex Us quae supra sunt^ "trace from remote 
events." So, rem longe repetere, i. q. ex iis quae longe distant. 

6. Illustria] " Plain, well-known. " Cic. ad Attic, iv. 6, 
ne illius injuriam faciam illustrem. 

7. Post magnitudinem, etc.] i.e. "no man injured Italy 
so much, since the period when Rome had become powerful, as 
Hannibal." Before that period Pyrrhus and the Gauls, Italiae 
opes attriverant. Comp. Gatil. 5, hunc post dominationem L. 
Sullae lubido maxima invaserat reip. capiendae: "No man 
had been so ambitious of power since the usurpation of Sulla." 

8. Cui postea Africano cognomen] P. Cornelius Scipio 
received the surname Africanus for his victory over Hannibal at 
Zama, and the triumphant conclusion of the second Punic war, 
a.u. 553 b.c. 201. He was said to be the first of the Romans 
who received as his title the name of the country he had con- 
quered. Sil. Ital. xvii. 627, Devictae primus referens cogno- 
mina terrae. His sons Publius and Cnaeus bore the same sur- 
name : the elder of them adopted a younger son of his relative 
L. Aemilius Paulus, the conqueror of Macedonia, who became 



NOTES. 101 

known as P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanns minor, 
more commonly called Scipio Aemilianus. He was the con- 
queror of Numantia in Spain (a.tj. 621), and opposed the agra- 
rian laws of Tiberius Gracchus. 

9. Eei militaris facinora] i. q. militaria facinora. So Cic. 
pro Mur. 10, rei militaris virtus. 

10. Syphace] Syphax was a Numidian chief, who warred 
with the Carthaginians about the year 540 of the city. He 
entered into alliance with the Eomans, but afterwards betrayed 
them, and connected himself with his former enemies. After 
various reverses he was finally defeated by the Eomans. Po- 
lybius asserts that he was led in Scipio's triumph, a.u. 553, 
but Livy relates that he died in confinement previously. Si- 
lius Italicus follows Livy's account, and represents the effigy 
of the captive. as carried among others in the procession xvii. 
630: 

Ante Syphax feretro residens captiva premebat 
Lumina, et auratae servabant colla catenae,... 
Mox victas tendens Carthago ad sidera palmas 
Ibat, et effigies orae jam lenis Iberae. 

11. Magnum atque late] Both words are to be taken ad- 
verbially. Comp. Virg. G. iii. 28, magnumque fluentem Nilum. 
Tac. Ann. vi. 37, nuntiavere accolae Euphratem sponte et im- 
mensum attolli. 

12. Bona atque honesta] "Good and true." 

13. Imperii vitaeque ejus finis idem fuit] i.e. "his sway 
ceased only with his death." At his decease the grants made 
him by the Eomans reverted to the republic, and his son Mi- 
cipsa retained authority only in his patrimonial possessions. 

14. Dereliquerat] So Kritz on the authority of the MSS. 
for the simple reliquerat. The preposition de conveys a notion 
of contemptuous abandonment. 

15. Domi] Implying, in domum suam ascitum ; "adopted 
into his own family." 

CHAPTEE VI. 

1. Luxu] The dat. case. This use of u for ui is confined 
according to Priscian, vii. 18, to poetry ; and adopted for the 
convenience of metre. Julius Caesar, however, according to 
Gellius, Nodes Atticae, iv. 16, considered it the true form of 
the termination. In the MSS. of Sallust it occurs frequently, 
but not always. 



102 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

2. Exacta sua aetate et parvis liberis] " Being himself 
old and his children still young;" exigere vitam, aetatem: to 
bring life to a close. 

3. Cum ammo . . . volvebat] 4 * He considered with himself." 
So, cum animo habere, Jugur. 11. Comp. 13, 70, 93, 108. In 
ariimo would imply a fixed intention. 

4. Transversos agit] "Draws or hurries away from the 
right to the wrong course." The same phrase occurs Jugur. 
c. 14. Senec. Epist. 108, ne resistere quidem licet quum coepit 
transversos agere felicitas. 

5. In Jugurtham accensa] " Inflamed in favour of Ju- 
gurtha." So Tac. Ann. iii. 4, studia hominum accensa in 
Agrippinam. 

CHAPTEB VH. 

1. Circumventus] "Embarrassed." 

2. Acceptum] "Acceptable," "agreeable." Varro, R. R. 
iii. 16, Dis et hominibus acceptum. Virg. Geor. ii. 101, Dis et 
mensis accepta secundis. Cic. Tusc. v. 15, gratum acceptum- 
que. 

3. Objectare periculis] "To thrust in the way of danger." 
Comp. Virg. Geor. i. 386, caput objectare fretis. 

4. Bello Numantino] See Liv. Epit. lvii. Ux.; Flor. ii. 17; 
Veil. ii. 4. Numantia, a city of the Celtiberi in Spain. Its 
site, according to Mannert, was at the confluence of the two 
branches of the Douro, where that river bends to the west, a little 
south of Soria. For its position, see Appian, Hisp. 76, 90; 
Strabo, iii. p. 246. The Numantians destroyed themselves to 
avoid falling into the hands of the Eomans, a.u. 611. 

5. Saevitia] i. q. ferocia, "prowess." Comp. Virg. Aen. 
xi. 910, et saevum Aenean agnovit Turnus in armis. Aen. i. 99, 
Saevus ubi Aeacidae telo jacet Hector. 

6. Acri ingenio] Not "clearness" and "acumen, but 
"high spirit" and "bravery." So in c. 20, ipse acer, bellieo- 
sus: ut is quern petebat quietus, imbellis, placido ingenio. 
Horace, Ars Poet. 121, of Achilles: 

Impiger, iracundus, inexorabilis, acer. 

Lucan, of Caesar, Phars. i. 146, acer et indomitus. 

7. Difficillimum in primis] The superl. with in primis is 
unusual and not strictly correct. But comp. Cic. Act. 2 in Verr. 
iii. 27, homini in primis improbissimo So Liv. xli. 23, ego 
maxime gravissimam rem arbitror. 



NOTES. 103 

8. Bonus] "Excellent." When joined with an ablative 
limiting its application tonus i. q. eximius. Comp. Tac. Ann. 
i. 3, Agrippam bonum militia geminatis consulatibus extulit. 
Liv. iv. 2, sic pace bonos sic bello fieri. 

9. Alteram... alteram] "The latter," "the former;" this 
transposition is called by the grammarians chiasmus. 

10. Frustra erat] "Was unsuccessful." The adverb for 
the adjective with the verb substantive. Comp. Catil. 21, qui- 
bus mala abunde omnia erant. 58, commeatus abunde. Ju- 
gur. 87, Komanos remoto metu laxius licentiusque futuros. 
Tac. Ann. iii. 28, teterrima quaeque abunde fuere. See note 
on Gatil. 58. 

CHAPTEE VIII. 

1. Clari magis, etc.] So Livy, viii. 27, clari magis inter 
populares quam honesti. Tac. Hist. ii. 10, Vibius Crispus, 
inter claros magis quam inter bonos. 

2. In ipso maximam virtutem] Inasmuch as, they said, 
his abilities were unrivalled, and everything might be got at 
Eome for money. The causal particle enim omitted as in 
Catil. 39, neque (enim) illis...licuisset. 

3. Praetorium] The tent of the imperator, or, as he was 
originally called, the praetor, i.e. qui praeibat, "who led the 
army." In later writers praetoria in the pi. is used poetically 
for "a palace." Juvenal, x. 161 : 

Mirandusque cliens sedet ad praetoria regis. 

4. Abduxit] Better than the common reading adduxit. 
Comp. Liv. xxx. 14, quos quum egregiis laudibus frequenti prae- 
torio celebrasset, abductum in secretum Masinissam sic allo- 
quitur. 

5. Publice] " By acting for the general advantage of the 
republic, rather than by acquiring private friends." 

6. Neu quibus] "Nor... to any one." 

7. In suis artibus] " In his (good) habits." 

8. Venturum] Venio used of the unexpected arrival of 
good or evil fortune. Cic. 2 in Verr. ii. 14, huic hereditas venit 
testamento propinqui sui. Of spontaneous growth: Virg. Geo. 
i. 54, hie segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvae. 

9. Sin properantius pergeret] "But if he proceeded in 
too great a hurry." 

10. Suamet ipsumi pecunia] " By means of the very money 
which he should expend in bribery." 



104 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 



CHAPTEE IX. 

1. Certo scio] There is equal MS. authority for certo and 
for certe. Hand in his Tursellinus, ii. 15, makes this distinc- 
tion, that certo expresses the objective certainty or truth of a 
proposition, certe the subjective assurance or belief. 

2. Gratulor] "I congratulate you thereupon" i.e. "that 
Jugurtha is' such as I have represented him." 

3. Beneficiis vincere] " To win by good offices." Comp. 
Curtius, vi. 8, etiamsi ipse vel poenitentia vel beneficio tuo 
victus quiesceret. 

4. Pariter cum] On an equality with. So c. 14, parem 
cum liberis tuis fecisti. 

5. Verba cum J. habuisse] Verba habere cum aliquo, " to 
address a discourse to a person," as Ter. ~H.ec. iii. 3. 21, hanc 
habere orationem mecum. On the other hand, Cic. Som. Scip. 
1, multis verbis ultro citroq ue 'habitis, " after much conversa- 
tion together." 

CHAPTEE X. 

1. In meum regnum accepi] "I have admitted to a share 
in my sovereignty." Comp. Virg. Aen. iv. 373: 

Ejectum litore, egentem 
Excepi, et regni demens in parte locavi. 

2. Neque ea res falsum me habuit] More emphatic than 
the simpler phrase fefellit : so, cognitum, perceptum, comper- 
tum, occultum aliquid habere. But here res is the subject, 
homo the object. Comp. 71, ne super tali re suspectum sese 
haberet. 79, quae res eos in magno diuturnoque bello inter 
sese habuit. 

3. Egregia tua] "Noble deeds of yours." So Corn. 
Nepos, Thrasyb. 3, praeclarum hoc Thrasybuli. 

4. Rediens] Not i. q. quum rediisses, but i. q. in ipso 
reditu, " in returning. " The proper sense of the pres. part.; 
though for want of a perf. part., the other sense sometimes 
occurs. Glory might be said to accrue to Numidia from the 
moment the victorious Jugurtha set out on his return from the 
scene of his successes. 

5. Nomen] "The glory of our family." 

6. Invidiam vicisti] Comp. Hor. Epist. ii. 1. 12 : 

Comperit invidiam supremo fine domari. 



NOTES. 105 

7. Per regni fidem] i.e. per earn jidem qua esse decet eum 
qui regnum obtinet, "by your royal word." 

8. Non exercitus, etc.] This is imitated from Xenophon 
Gyrop. viii. 7. 14, oi> r68e t6 xP V(T °vv cricrjirTpov rb t\\v (3a<rt\€Lav 
diaaQfrov eanv dXXdt, ol woWoi <pl\oi (JKrJTrrpov ^aaiXevinv akydt- 
(rrarov Kal dacpak^ararov. 

9. Ectuidem ego] See note on Gatil. 51. 

10. Concordia parvae, etc.] This sentence, it is said, was 
often in the mouth of M. Agrippa, the associate of Augustus. 
Senec. Epist. 94. 

11. Ante hos] Ante, implying priority, not in time, but 
in excellence. Comp. Catil. 53, gloria belli Gallos ante Eoma- 
nos fuisse. 

12. Talem nunc virum] " This man, so excellent as he 
is." Comp. Jugur. 63, is ad id locorum talis vir. 

CHAPTEE XI. 

1. Pro tempore] "As the occasion required." Comp. 
Gatil. 51 ; Jugur. 74. 

2. Justa] Scil. funera or officia. Caesar says, Bell. Gall. 
vi. 19, justis funeribus confectis ; but Cicero, pro Rose. Am. 8, 
paterno funeri justa solvere. So justa ferre, or dare : Gr. tcl 
vofu£6fjLeva ; Festus, in voc. Praecidanea : qui mortuo justa non 
fecisset, id est, glebam non objecisset. 

3. Reguli] "Petty kings," "chieftains," d\jva<rraL. The 
word is not found in Cicero or Caesar. 

4. Minimus] Sc. natu, which is generally expressed, un- 
less filius, or exjiliis, is added, as Liv. i. 53. Sextus nlius ejus 
qui minimus ex tribus erat. Justin, xlii. 5, obsidem Caesari 
minimum filium Phraatis ferens. Here ex illis, sc. regulis, 
means the sons of Micipsa, who were inferior kings, associated 
in power with their father. 

5. Quod apud N. etc.] Comp. the story in Plutarch, Gato 
min. 57, of Juba assuming the place of honour between Metel- 
lus, Scipio and Cato. But the Eomans also, at least at a 
later period, considered the middle the place of honour. The 
emperor took his seat in the senate between the consuls for the 
year. Hence Sil. Ital. iii. 626, of Domitian : 

Tarda senectam 
Hospitia excipient coeli; solioque Quirinus 
Concedet, mediumque parens fraterque locabunt. 



106 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

6. Fatigatus] "Importuned." Comp. Tac. Hist. i. 29, 
galla fatigabat alieni jam imperii Deos. 

7. Jacit] " Suggests." Cic. ad Att. ii. 23, non mediocres 
terrores jacere atque denuntiare. 

8. Quinquennii] "Of the five years' interval;" i.e. those 
during which Micipsa had been incompetent to govern. 

9. Ipsum ilium] Scil. Jugurtham. 

10. Tribus proximis annis] "Within the last three years." 
Another reading is: tribui Ms proximis annis; as in Cic. ad 
Fam. vii. 9, neque ego ad te his duobus mensibus scripseram. 
Comp. Jugur. 31, piget dicere his annis xx quam ludibrio fue- 
ritis superbiae paucorum. 

CHAPTEE XII. 

1. Loca propinqua thesauris] i.e. the cities or fortified 
places in which the royal treasures were deposited, or which 
secured the command of them. No such place as Thirmida is 
known. Hippo (the modern Bona) and Cirta (Constantina) 
were the principal cities of Numidia. 

2. Proximus lictor] The lictors walked before the magis- 
trates at Eome, and the last of these, who immediately pre- 
ceded the magistrate, was therefore proximus to him. The 
Roman writers constantly apply their own terms to foreign 
ofiicers, &c: lictor means here, "an attendant." Proximus^ 
here metaphorically, " most confidential." So the cant phrase, 
proximus sum egomet mihi. 

3. Onerat] Comp. Liv. xxiv. 13, Hannibal oneratos in- 
gentibus promissis domum redire jubet. Tac. Histor. i. 25, 
Proculum et Veturium pretio et promissis onerat. 

4. Referebantur] The use of the imperf. signifies: "were 
regularly carried back to Hiempsal;" i.e. whenever they had 
been used to unlock the treasury for the public service. 

5. Ut doctus erat] "As he was instructed:" the simplest 
but least usual sense of the participle, which generally means, 
peritus, eruditus. 

6. Diversi] "Going different ways." Comp. Liv. x. 33, 
diversi consules ad vastandos agros urbesque oppugnandas 
discedunt. 

7. Mulieris ancillae] Mulier is superfluous, as in many 
places. Ter. Andr. iv. 4. , 16, mulier meretrix. Phormio, ii. 1. 
62, homo servus. Cic. ad Div. vii. 22, homo gladiator. We 
say, "a maid servant," " a waiting woman ;" but in Latin the 
sex is indicated by the form of the qualifying word, ancilla, 
servus, &c. 



NOTES. 107 



CHAPTEE SQL 

1. Voluntate] "Of their own good will." Comp. Liv. 
Epit. xlix., Andriscus totam Macedoniam aut voluntate inco- 
lentium aut armis occupavit. Observe that the ablatives vi, 
voluntate, refer to different subjects, though brought under the 
same construction to serve the antithesis. 

2. In provinciam] i.e, the Koman province of Africa; for- 
merly the domain of Carthage. The simple term provincia 
was applied to it, Kar e&xhv, as also to the possessions of the 
republic in Gaul. Comp. Jugur. 25, 39, 62. 

3. Patratis consiliis] " Having effected his purpose ;" i.e. 
his scheme against the brothers. Patrare, an archaic word for 
the more usual perficere. 

4. Hospitibus] i.e. certain Eoman citizens who undertook 
to entertain visitors from Numidia, and take charge of their 
affairs, like the irp6%evoL of Athens. 

5. Senatus. . .datur] "A meeting of the senate is appointed 
them." So diem dare or dicer e, a forensic term. The audi- 
ences of foreign envoys were ordinarily given in the first two 
months of the year. 

CHAPTEB XIV. 

1. Procuratione] "Administration;" i.e. with deputed 
authority. Hence under the empire the officer by whom cer- 
tain provinces were administered, was called procurator Cae- 
saris, " the emperor's deputy." 

2. Jus et imperium] "Legal right and formal authority." 
Hor. Epist. i. 12. 27: 

Jus imperiumque Phraates 
Caesaris accepit genibus minor. 

3. Loco ducerem] Comp. Sail. Fr. 192, praedae loco aes- 
timantur. 

4. Sustinet] "Bears," with a notion of difficulty and 
pain. Ovid Met. ii. 296, Atlas, en! ipse laborat, Vixque suis 
humeris candentem sustinet axem. Comp. Plaut. Poen. pr. 90, 
homini, si leno est homo, Quantum hominum terra sustinet 
sacerrimo. 

5. Atque ego, Patres] Not a copulative here, but marking 
a transition, " So," " such being the case, I for my part." 



108 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

6. Maxime... secundum] "In the first... in the second 
place." Comp. Cic. Philipp. viii. 16, hujus industriam maxime 
equidem vellem ut imitarentur ii quos oportebat; secundo 
autem loco ne alterius labori inviderent. Varro, de Vit. Pop. 
Bom. iii. quoted by Nonius, ii. 621, animadvertendum primum 
quidem de causis... secundum, qua fide...eas coluerint. Gerlacn 
punctuates : secundum ea, " next to this," for which construc- 
tion comp. Cic. in Vatin. 6, secundum ea quaero ; and Caes. 
B. G. i. 33. In that case desideranda must be referred to ano- 
ther ea understood, and not to the ea which is expressed, an 
awkward construction. 

7. Neque mini in manu fuit] " It was not in my power 
to effect what sort of person Jugurtha should be." Comp. Ter. 
Hec. iv. 4. 44 : 

Uxor quid faciat, in manu non est mea: 
And below, 

Uti per otium tuti simus in manu vestra est. 

8. Quo tempore...] "At a time when such was the condi- 
tion of the republic that only its good faith, and not its good 
fortune, could engage sympathy or attract friends." 

9. Fortuna petenda erat] "Would have been to be 
sought." The imperf. is thus used of a thing which in a cer- 
tain case, which does not actually hold, would be right or 
proper. Cic. leg. Man. 17, Si Pompeius privatus esset... 
tamen is erat deligendus. See Madvig, Lat. Gram. § 348 e. 
erat majestatis : "It would have befitted the greatness." 

10. Evasere] " Have come to this result." Ter. Andr. i. 1. 
190, heri semper lenitas verebar quorsum evaderet. 

11. Parem cum lifoeris] Cic. Brut. 59, erant ei quaedam 
ex his paria cum Crasso. Phil. i. 14, libertate parem cum 
ceteris. 

12. Ferro] i.q. certamine. Suet. Ner. 12, exhibuit ad fer- 
rum quadringentos senatores. 

13. Jure] "Naturally," " as might be expected." 

14. Sese ecferens] "Bising," "swelling;" i.e. growing 
proud and presumptuous : ecferens, an old form for efferens. 

15. In imperio vestro] "Under your sway;" i.e. vobis 



16. Extorrem...effecit ut tutius essem] Extorris, the 
proper subject of the second verb essem, becomes by attraction 
the object of the first verb effecit. Comp. Plaut. Poenul. ii. 5, 
Sex immolavi agnos nee potui tamen propitiam Venerem facer e 
uti esset mihi. For tutius essem, see note on Jugur. 7. 



NOTES. 109 

17. Praedicantem] "Declaring;" i.q. saepe et palam di- 
centem. Comp. Gatil. 48, ipse Crassum postea praedicantem 
audivi. 

18. Quo...accedam] i.e. as a suppliant for help. Catull. 
lxiv. 177, nunc quo me referam ? 

19. Pro magnitudine imperii] "As befits the greatness 
of your empire." 

20. Quo accidam] Scil. ad genua: "at whose feet shall 
I throw myself?" Comp. Ennius in Cic. Tusc. iii. 19, arce et 
urbe orba sum: quo accidam? quo applicem? Suet. Jul. 20, 
ut ad genua ultro sibi accideret. Senec. Troad. 690, ad genua 
accido supplex. 

21. Infesti sunt] The passage seems to be imitated by 
Virgil, Aen. iv. 320 : 

Te propter Libycae gentes Nomadumque tyranni 
Odere; infensi Tyrii. 

22. Hostilia monumenta] i.e. "memorials of the warfare 
waged by my ancestors against the neighbouring states on the 
Eomans' behalf." 

23. Huic imperio] " This empire of yours." 

24. Secunda et obediential " Attentive and obedient." 

25. Sociorum injurias] "The injuries suffered by your 
allies." 

26. Fingere me verba] "They say that I make a fictitious 
representation. " 

27. Quod utinam] "I wish, for my part." Quod, in con- 
junction with si, nisi, ubi, utinam, &c, loses its pronominal 
force, and becomes merely emphatic, or marks a transition. 

28. Rerum humanarum cura] Comp. Lucan, iv. 808 : 

vii. 454, 

Mortalia nulli Sunt curata Deo. 

Claudian, in Eufin. i. 1, 

Saepe mini dubiam traxit sententia mentem 
Curarent Superi terras. 

29. Nae] Or, we, "surely!" Gr. val. 

30. Sceleribus suis ferox atque praeclarus] "Exulting 
and glorying in his crimes." Comp. Hor. Epod. iv. 5 : 

Licet superbus ambules pecunia. 



Si libertatis superis tarn cura placeret 
Q,uam vindicta placet 



110 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

31. Jam jam] "Assuredly." Antiqua dicendi forma, 
Hand, Turs. iii. 156. Virg. Aen. iv. 369, jam jam nee maxima 
Juno nee Saturnius haec oculis pater aspicit aequis. 

32. Unde minime decuit] i.e. a quo. Comp. Hor. Od. iii. 
11.38: 

Surge ne longus tibi somnus unde 
Non times detur. 

So illuc for in ilium: Tac. Ann. i. 3, Nero solus e privignis 

erat : illuc cuncta vergere. 

33. Cujus vitae necisque] Cujus referred to ipse, not to 
the substantive next preceding, regnum. Comp. Tac. Ann. xv. 
36, vidisse civium moestos vultus, quod tantum aditurus esset 
iter, cujus ne modicos quidem egressus tolerarent. 

34. Emori] " To die at once :" expressing the immediate 
connexion between the death and its cause or motive. So Hor. 
Od. iii. 24. 24: 

Et peccare nefas aut pretium emori: 
"to die thereupon." 

35. Neu] i. q. neve. "And that I might not." 

36. Per vos] i.e. vos obtestor per vosmet ipsos, &c. So 
Cicero Plancio, 42, nolite, judices, per vos, per fortunas vestras, 
per liberos, inimicis meis dare laetitiam. Liv. xxix. 18, per vos 
fidemque vestram. 

37. Per scelus, etc.] i.e. "by the crimes of Jugurtha and 
the slaughter of my brother and myself, all belonging to the 
same family;" " by family crime and slaughter." 

38. Taoescere] " To consume away;" " to perish ineffect- 
ively." Comp. Catull. lxiv. 199, Vos nolite pati nostrum va- 
nescere luctum. 

CHAPTEE XV. 

1. Freti] "Belying on the bribes they had given rather 
than on the merits of their case." 

2. Putarent] Scil. the senators, understood in senatus. 
Drakenborch on Liv. iv. 58 brings together a great many simi- 
lar instances of the plural verb after senatus. See note 20 on 
Gatil. 17. 

3. Ante facta sua ponerent] Ante, signifying "prefer- 
ence," never 'separated from its verb in Cicero, but commonly 
in the later writers. See Hand, Tursell. i. 386, and so in En- 
nius, quoted by Cicero, Off. i. 24, non ponebat enim rumores 
ante salutem, if the right order of the words be not rather, 
n. e. r. p. a. s. Comp. Gatil. 53, and other passages given in 
note 7. In c. 16, quae vero pretium aut gratiam anteferebat 
is an instance of the more common usage. 



NOTES. Ill 

4. Contemnere] "Express their contempt for." So Cic. 
pro Mur. 7, contempsisti Murenae genus, extulisti tuum. 

5. Bonum et aecLuum] Bonum, that which is good in 
itself : aequum that which may be required of one. 

6. Aemilius Scaurus] There were several families belong- 
ing to the Aemilian gens, distinguished by the surnames Lepi- 
dus, Paullus, Scaurus, &c. Scaurus signifies a person with 
crooked or weak ancles. Hor. Sat. i. 3. 47, scaurum pravis 
fultum male talis. The greatest man of this family was the 
M. Scaurus here mentioned. He was consul B.C. 115; tri- 
umphed over the Ligures, and made the Aemilian Way from 
Pisae to Lunae and thence to Dertona. Strab. v. He was 
consul B.C. 107, censor, and afterwards princeps senatus. He 
was a staunch champion of the senate; nevertheless he was 
accused by Varius, a tribune of the people, of exciting the 
Italians to revolt, b.c 90. Scaurus proudly demanded of the 
people whether they would take the word of Varius, a Spani- 
ard, or of Scaurus, the prince of the senate ; and this appeal 
was answered with acclamations. Cicero extols the character 
of Scaurus as a champion of the nobility. For the same rea- 
son probably Sallust seeks to depreciate him. 

7. Polluta] "Shameless;" "detestable." Jug. 53, indig- 
nus honore et quasi pollutus. 

CHAPTEE XVI. 

1. Pretium aut gratiam] " Bribery or influence." 

2. L. Opimius] A champion of the optimates, and vehe- 
ment opponent of the Agrarian laws of the Gracchi. He was 
consul b.c 121, in which capacity the senate called upon him 
to see "ne quid res publica detrimenti caperet." This decree 
was called Senatus-consultum ultimum, and was interpreted 
by the nobles as investing the consul with plenary authority 
over the lives of the citizens. Accordingly Opimius caused 
G. Gracchus, and his colleague in the tribunate, Fulvius Flae- 
cus, to be seized, as public enemies, and put to death. The 
plebs denied the right to put any citizen to death except by a 
vote of the people. Opimius was eventually condemned by a 
popular vote for taking bribes of Jugurtha, and driven into 
banishment. Cicero extols him as the saviour of the common- 
wealth. 

3. Victoriam] Opimius followed up the slaughter of Grac- 
chus by the massacre of three thousand of his partizans in the 
city. Plut. C. Gracch. Victoriam exercere is to exercise the 
rights of victory. So in Catil. 38. 



112 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

4. In inimicis] I adopt the reading of Kritz and several 
other editors, for amicis, given by the MSS. 

5. Accuratissime] "With elaborate attention." Accura- 
tus is said of things, diligens of persons. 

6. Fama, fide] The ablat. governed by the comparative 
force of anteferrent, " he considered the advantage of the king 
more important than his own reputation." So Cic. pro Balb. 
8, quum magna pars libertatem civitate antef erret ; i.e. potio- 
rem duceret. Cic. Orat. 13, Isocrates videtur testimonio Pla- 
tonis aliorum judicia debere contemnere; i.e. minoris facere. 

7. Eadem via] "By the same means." This metaphor- 
ical use of via is common in Sallust. Comp. Catil. 11, vera 
via. Jugur. 1, virtutis via. 

8. Mauretaniam] The north-western parts of Africa, 
modern Fez and Marocco. At this period the river Mulucha, 
now Mulviah, constituted the boundary of Mauretania and 
Numidia. The name more correctly written with e than with 
i, as appears from inscriptions, and so also in some of our MSS. 
in this place. Dietsch. 

9. Agro] "In extent of territory." 

10. Illam alteram] " That other well-known part." 
Comp. Cic. in Catil. iv. 5, si eritis secuti sententiam C. Cae- 
saris, fortasse minus erunt mihi populares impetus pertimes- 
cendi; sin illam alteram (that other which you have heard), 
nescio an, etc. 

CHAPTEE XVII. 

1. Exponere] Scil. ut exponam. The infin. used after 
verbs of willing, intending, &c. So Jugur. 19, alio properare 
tempus monet. Tac. Ann. vi. 45, Macro impulerat Enniam 
amore juvenem illicere. 

2. Minus frequentata] "Comparatively unvisited." So 
ludos, sacra frequentare, "to resort to." Observe the neut. 
plur. used instead of the fern, frequentatae. Kritz in loc. 
remarks, si subjectum pluribus nominibus varii generis constat, 
praedicati genus et numerus legitime ad id refertur, cujus notio 
in sententia praeminet et primaria est. So here loca. 

3. Haud facile compertum narraverim] "I could not well 
relate anything as certainly known. " 

4. Orbis terrae] " The earth :" orbis terrarum, " the Bo- 
man empire." Cortius on Cic. ad Div. ii. 16. 13. 



NOTES. 113 

5. In parte tertia Africam] Comp. Lucan, evidently a 
diligent student of Sallust, ix, 411 : 

Tertia pars rerum Libye, si credere famae 
Cuncta velis, sed si ventos coelumque sequaris 
Pars erit Europae; neque enim plus litora Nili 
Q,uam Scythicus Tanais primis a Gadibus absunt; 
Unde Europa fugit Libyen et litora flexu 
Oceano fecere locum. Sed major in unam 
Orbis abit Asiam; nam cum communiter istae 
Effundant Zephyrum, Boreae latus ilia sinistrum 
Contingens dextrumque Noti, discedit in ortus 
Eurum sola tenens. 

Some MSS. read in partem, and so the passage was read by 
St Augustin (de Civ. Dei, xvi. 17). It is doubtful, however, 
whether in with the aec. is ever used after ponere. Madvig on 
Cic. de Fin. v. 2, cited by Dietsch. 

6. Ea] Sc. Africa. 

7. Fretum nostri maris et oceani] " The straits between 
the Mediterranean and the Atlantic." 

8. Declivem latitudinem] "The broad expanse of the 
eastern slope of the globe." So the southern hemisphere is 
called mundi devexa by Lucan, x. 39. While on the west, the 
extreme point of Africa is fixed at the straits of Grades, on the 
east it has no precise limit. The Catabathmus or declivity of 
the globe is the region eastward of Cyrene : so denominated by 
the Greeks of that place. Mela, i. 1, deinde a Catabathmo con- 
fcinuus est in Aegyptum descensus ; i. 8 Catabathmus vallis 
devexa in Aegyptum finit Africam. Egypt was considered to 
belong to Asia. 

9. Arbore infecundus] The reading cited by Arusianus 
Messus in Corp. Gram. Lat. L 230, in voc. ferax illo. Comp. 
Tac. Ann. xiii. 57, flumen gignendo sale fecundum. Virg. Geo. 
ii. 222, ilia ferax oleo. But MSS. and Edd. read arbori. 

10. Salubri] Salubre, "robust;" sanum, " sound." Doe- 
derlein, Synon. i. 32. Tac. Hist. v. 6, corpora hominum salu- 
bria et ferentia laborum. . . 

11. Quae plerosque obtinet] The usual construction 
would be apud plerosque, or plerumque. The passage is proba- 
bly corrupt. 

12. Ex libris Punicis] It will be remembered that Sallust 
administered the province of Numidia under Caesar, and may 
have obtained his information upon these subjects on the spot. 
The deponent used as a passive. 

13. Interpretation] So enisum, Jugur. 25. Adeptus, 
Catil. 7. Machinatum, Catil, 48, bonis venditis aut dilargitis; 
Fragm. 185. 

JUG. 8 



114 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

14. Uti...utiqtie] "As... and as." Utique unusual for 
utque. Comp. Gic. Phil. 9 in fin. utique consules quaestoribus 
imperent. 

CHAPTER XVIH. 

1. Vagi, palantes] Errare, to stray from the right way 
ignorantly: vagari, to wander about, to roam, purposely: pa- 
lari, to roam, apart from one's companions. Erramusincerti, 
vagamur soluti, palamur dispersi. Doederlein, Synon. i. 89. 

2. Hercules] The Phoenician Hercules (or Melcarth) is 
the hero of Syrian and Punic legends. His conquests repre- 
sent the spread of civilization by the commercial establish- 
ment of the Phoenician race. 

3. Multis sibi quisctue...petentibus] Comp. Justin, xxix. 
1, regibus...in suorum quisque majorum vestigia nitentibus. 

4. Nostro mari] i.e. the Mediterranean. 

5. Intra oceanum magis] "Nearer to the ocean," i.e. 
towards the coast of the Atlantic Ocean rather than of the Me- 
diterranean. The Persians are represented as occupying the 
country westward of the straits of Gades. That the passage 
cannot mean, as some understand it, "farther from the ocean," 
"more inland," appears from the use of alveos navium pro 
tuguriis. 

6. Alveos navium] Comp. Lucan, v. 516 : 

Haud procul inde domus non ullo robore fulta, 
Sed sterili junco, cannaque intexta palustri, 
Et latus inversa nudum munita phaselo. 

7. Materia] "Timber." Madvig {Gramm. 56) holds that 
materies is the proper form for the primary meaning of the 
word, i.e. "timber," and materia for "matter." So in Gatil. 
10, all the MSS. read materies. In this place, however, materia 
is generally found. 

8. Mare magnum] " The extent of sea, or ocean." Comp. 
Cic. Somn. Scip. c. 6, terra parva quaedam insula est, circum- 
fusa illo mari quod Atlanticum, quod magnum, quod Oceanum 
appellatis. 

9. Ignara] Passive for incognita. So Jugur. 52, regio 
hostibus ignara. 

10. Alia, deinde alia] So Jugur. 36, alias, deinde alias 
morae causas facere. 

11. Nomadas] Or Numidas. These are the words by 
which the Sicilian Greeks and the Romans respectively repre- 
sented the native appellation, Nemoudim, Phoen. "wanderers." 



FOTES. 115 

12. Mapalia] Another form magalia. See Serous, on 
A en. iv. 259. Lucan uses the same word of the huts of the 
Numidians, ii. 89 : 

vacuisque mapalibus actus 
Nuda triumphati jacuit per regna Jugurthae. 

Of their form, Festus in voc. says from Cato, Orig. iv. ma- 
palia, quasi cohortes, rotundae sunt. (Cohortes or cortes, 
X&PTOL, inclosures for cattle, &c.) He is speaking apparently 
not of single huts, but of kraals, or assemblages of huts. 

13. Accessere Libyes] "Approached the Libyans." As 
the Persae mingled with the Gaetuli in the west, so the Modes 
and Armenians coalesced with the Libyans in the east, on the 
borders of the Mediterranean, or mare Africum. Comp. Jugur, 
20, pleraque loca accedit. 

14. Agitabant] Scil. vitam. Comp. Gatil. 2, vita homi- 
num sine cupiditate agitabatur. 

15. Sub sole magis] " More directly under the sun." 

16. Ab ardoribus] "From the torrid zone:" as 19, loca 
exusta solis ardoribus. The Greeks denominated the zones, 
Karexpvyfi&ai, "frigid;" etf/c/jarot, "temperate;" diaKeKav/xivrj, 
" torrid." Ovid, i. Metam. i. 46, quinta est ardentior illis. 

17. Proxime Carthaginem] Propius and proxime may 
govern an accus. as well as prope. So in ch. 19, proxime 
Hispaniam. 

18. Hi] Scil. Libyes; hique, sc. Medi, Armenii et Libyes; 
eorum, sc. Medorum et Armeniorum: the proper relation of the 
pronouns is not very carefully observed. 

19. Pars inferior] "Nearer the sea," i.e. the Mediter- 
ranean. 

20. In gentem...concessere] A phrase used of conquered 
people who unite with their conquerors. 



CHAPTEE XIX. 

1. Originibus suis] Origines, scil. metropoles. Comp. 
Liv. xxxviii. 39, Iliensibus Rhaetum et Gergithum addiderunt, 
originum memoria. 

2. Nam] With reference to a sentence understood, e.g. 
haec de illis urbibus sufficiant ; sed Carthaginem consulto non 
nominavi ; nam de ea, etc. Kritz. 

8—2 



116 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

3. Ad Catabatlmion... prima] "Next to Catabathmus. " 
Comp. Cic. de Fin. iii. 16, quorum ordo proxime accedit ut 
secundus sit ad regium principatum. Mela, i. 8, with an eye 
to this passage of Sallust, inde ad Catabathmon Cyrenaica 
provincia est. Comp. Pliny, Hist. Nat. xxviii. 9, dulcissimum 
ad hominis camelinum lac. 

4. Secundo mari] "Following the line of the sea-coast." 
Virg. Geor. iii. 447, secundo defluit amni. Caes. B. G. vii. 
58, secundo flumine ad Lutetiam iter facere, " following the 
bank of the river." 

5- Cyrene] Founded from Thera, one of the Cyclades, by 
Battus, a.c. 632, Olymp. xxxvii. 1. See Herod, vii. 150 seqq. 

6. Theraeon...Pnilaenon] Greek genitives, Qepalwv, 3>i- 
\aivojv. Kritz remarks that the Greek genit. in on is used only 
in rare proper names by the Latin writers. 

7. Super Numidiam] "Above," "more inland." Super 
et supra, significant, quod, alio intercedente, remotius est. Hoc 
loco igitur est, trans Numidiam, quippe ab Italia, sive ultra. 
Sic Eomani mare Adriaticum superum appellabant. Dietsch. 

8. Exusta] Comp. Lucan, ix. 312, Vadimus in campos 
steriles, exustaque mundi. 

9. Bello Jugurthino] " At the era of the Jugurthine war.' 



10. Pleraque ex Punicis oppida] i.e. ex Pun. 
"many Carthaginian towns." The Carthaginians were called 
Poeni (Punicus, of or belonging to Poenus), from their original 
country Phoenicia. Gr. <poivi%, the palm-tree. Hence the Latin 
puniceus, "red." Lucan, i. 214, Puniceus Eubicon. 

CHAPTEBXX. 

1. Decessere] The MSS. fluctuate between this and dis~ 
cessere. The former is the proper word for an officer leaving 
his post, and returning home. Kritz in loc. who refers to 
Drakenborch on Liv. xxviii. 28. So Jugur. 28, decrevere uti 
legati... Italia decederent, 35, jussus ab Senatu Italia decedere. 

2. Opportunus injuriae] "Open to injury;" "subject 
to be injured with impunity." Comp. Liv. xxviii. 19, quis 
unquam civem militemve opportunum injuriae duceret ? 

3. Quam bellum sumere] So c. 62, de integro bellum 
sumit. Comp. the common phrase sumere arma, " to take 
up arms." Virg. Georg. ii. 125, et gens ilia quidem sumptis 
non tarda pharetris. 



NOTES. 117 

4. Secus cesserat] " Had been less successful than he 
had expected." Secus has the force of a comparative, Jugur. 
92, rem haud secus difficilem, "not less difficult." In other 
places Sallust uses it with negation and atque, in the sense of 
" otherwise than." Jugur. 100, neque secus atque in mari. 

5. Animo...invaserat] Comp. Cic. in Verr. i. 51, qui 
jam spe et opinione praedam illam devorasset. Ad Att. i. 16, 
ille autem regis haereditatem spe devoraverat. 

. 6. Praedas] This word is used in the plur. in Jugur. 32, 
41, 44. Booty may be of various kinds, or carried off by 
various persons, or from various places. 



CHAPTEE XXI. 

1. Obvius procedit] For the use of the adjective instead 
of the adverb obviam, comp. diversus, Jugur. 12, 46, 50, and 
the phrases certantes agere, Jugur. 44, frequentes incederent, 
Jugur. 46, festinare pergit, Jugur. 52, properantes arma ca- 
piunt, Jugur. 53, occultus veniat, Jugur. 61, quo improvisus 
gravior accederet, Jugur. 88, citi sese ostendunt, Jugur. 101. 

2. Cirtam] Cirta, Gr. Klpra, apparently i. q. the Phoe- 
nician Kartha, "a city;" called afterwards by the Komans 
Sittianorum colonia, from the followers of P. Sittius, a Eoman 
adventurer who assisted Caesar in his African campaign; 
known in modern times by the name of Constantineh. It lies 
about 40 miles inland, on the river Ampsagas, and was one of 
the principal cities of Numidia. 

. 3. Die] An old form of the gen. Yirg. Geo. i. Libra die 
somnique pares ubi fecerit horas. This form is preserved by 
the MSS. in several places in Sallust, e.g. Jugur. 52, 97, 
though here many read diet. 

4. Plerumque noctis processit] Comp. Jugur. 51, multum 
diei processerat. Lucan, vii. 423, compares the advance of the 
Roman empire to the progress of a heavenly body through the 
sky : Te geminum Titan procedere vidit in axem. 

5. Obscuro...lumine] " The sun not yet risen." Lumen 
is properly the body from whence light issues, lux the light 
diffused. Doederl. Synon. ii. 66. But Virg. Aen. vi. 356, 
vix lumine quarto Prospexi Italiam, poetically, as we should 
say, "with the fourth sun," i.e. on the fourth day. 

6. Fugant funduntque] " Put to flight and rout," or 
"disperse." 



118 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

7. Togatorum] i.e. Eoman citizens. These are called 
c. 26, Jtalici, and afterwards negotiator 'es, i. e. Eoman settlers 
who carried on commerce in the country. 

8. Patratum] "Accomplished:" a more formal and em- 
phatic word than perfectum. See above on c. 13. 

9. Foret] "Were already:" the imperf. for the plusq. 
perf. implying the immediateness of the act. Comp. nearly the 
same words in Tacitus, Ann. xii. 16. 

10. Vineis] These were wooden frames, covered with 
hides, wattles, &c, to protect the besiegers, while they worked 
their battering rams, or constructed their towers. Vinea is 
properly an adjective, agreeing with portions, (as appears from 
Caes. Bell. Civ. ii. 2, porticus integebantur), from its similarity 
to vines trained over trellis-work. 

11. Tempus...antecapere] "To make the best use of 
the time before their return." 

12. Velle et censere] Velle is properly said of a reso- 
lution of the people, censere of the senate. Sed hoc loco 
utrumque verbum de senatus consulto intelligendum est. Kritz 
in loc. 

CHAPTEE XXII. 

1. Maturantes veniunt] For mature. Comp. passages 
in note on c. 21. 

2. Clemens] Explained by Pjiscian in this place by non 
nimius, "moderately strong," more properly, "the rumour 
was softened," i.e. fell short of the shocking truth: opposed 
to atrox, a common epithet to rumor or fama. Clemens is 
"gently sloping," connected perhaps with collis and clivus. 
So Tac. Ann. xiii. 38, colles clementer assurgentes. Germ. 1, 
clementer edito montis jugo. 

3. Malitia] "Vice." The same opposition is found in 
Seneca, Epist. 106, quicquid agimus aut malitiae aut virtutis 
gerimus imperio. Cicero indeed, Tusc. disp. iv. 15, opposes 
vitiositas to virtus, and would confine malitia to a particular 
quality, as we say, "malice." But in another place, de Nat. 
Deor. iii. 30, he says that malitia is any versuta et fallax 
nocendi ratio. 

4. Ob easdem artes] " For the same qualities which had 
gained him the favour of Scipio." 

5. Pro bono] i. q. simpl. bene. Kritz, pro bono facere, 
i. q. facere ita sicut bonum est, i. e. ut probari potest. 



NOTES. 119 

6. Ab jure...pronifouerit] "Prevent his using the law 
of nations to defend or avenge himself." 

CHAPTER XXm. 

1. Firmat] Firmantur turres praesidiis cum per ea a di- 
rutione defenduntur. Dietsch in loc. 

2. Praemia...formidinem] " Holding out at one time 
promises, at another threats:'' formidinem^ "fear," for" the 
cause of fear;" i.e. rem formidolosam. Sallust uses similar 
expressions again, Jugur. 66, 89. Formido is stronger than 
metus or timor. Cic. Tusc. iv. 8, Stoici definiunt formidinem, 
metum permanentem. 

3. Miserando] " By complaining of." Misereor expresses 
the inward feeling, miseror the outward act. So vereor, veneror. 

4. Ad proximum mare] " To the sea at its nearest point." 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

1. Socius et amicus populi Romani] The sovereignty of 
allied kings was acknowledged by the senate. Caes. Bell. 
Gall. i. 43, Caesar commemoravit quod rex appellatus esset 
a Senatu, quod amicus, quod munera amplissima missa. 

2. Fortuna mea, etc.] "My ill-fortune discourages me 
from writing more concerning Jugurtha, being assured that 
little reliance is placed on the complaints of the unfortunate." 

3. Nisi tamen intelligo] " (I will say no more) but that 
I am aware." Quod is suppressed. Comp. Cic. ad Div. xiii. 
73, De re nihil possum judicare, nisi illud mihi certe persuadeo, 
te nihil temere fecisse. 

4. Petere] " He aims at a higher object than myself," 
viz. at the Roman authority. 

5. Gravius] " The more important." 

6. Posuistis] So Cic. pro Flacc. 19, custos frumento 
publico positus. 

7. Ut...ostentui essem] "That I should serve as an 
exhibition of Jugurtha's wickedness." 

CHAPTER XXV. 

1. Enisum] Passive, as Catil. 7; adeptus, 48; machina- 
tus, Jugur. 17, interpretatus. ' 



120 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

2. Majdres natu] "Persons of greater age," i.e. higher 
distinction; whereas, on the former occasion, adolescentes had 
been sent. 

3. In senatu princeps] i.e. princeps senatus. The man 
of highest standing among the censorii, those who had been 
censors, was appointed princeps of the senate, and his opinion 
was first asked on any question in debate. He continued prin- 
ceps during his lifetime. After the year b. c. 210, the censors 
appointed the most worthy of the censorii. See in Liv. xxvii. 
11 the story of ihe appointment of Q. Eabius Maximus. 

4. In invidia esse] Comp. Cic. adAtt.il 9; Liv. xxix. 
37. 

5. Triduo] i. e. intra trium dierum spatium. 

6. Utica. The capital of the Eoman province of Africa ; 
Carthage, near which it stood, being destroyed. 

7. Casum victoriae] "An opportunity of victory." Comp. 
Jugur. 56, fortunam illis praeclari facinoris casum dare. 

8. Multa pratione consumta] "After much talking to 
no purpose." Such is generally the force of consumer e in such 
phrases as, consumere diem, tempus, verba, &c. 

9. Frustra] i.e. eventu frustrati. Comp, Jugur. 85, ut 
neque vos capiamini, et illi frustra sint. 112, saepe cum im- 
peratoribus Bom. pacem conventam frustra fuisse. 

CHAPTEE XXVI. 

1. Italici] The Eoman citizens spoken of in c. 21, by 
the designation of " togati," including, we may suppose, natives 
of Italy who had not the full Eoman franchise 

2. Necat...interfecit] A distinction may be drawn between 
these words, necare is to put to death by poison, starving, 
or torturing. Doederlein, Latein. Synonym. Ill, 187, cites from 
the grammarian Festus : neci proprie dicitur, qui sine vulnere 
interfectus est, ut veneno, fame. We may generally attach 
to necare the idea of killing with cruelty. Interficere has the 
general signification of " slaying." Comp. Q. Curtius, ix. 2, 
Boxum protinus placuit interfici ; Biconem etiam percruciatum 
necari. Kritz in loc. 

CHAPTEE XXVH. 

1. Potentia] Always in Sallust "political influence.'' So 
c. 30, potentia Scauri. 



NOTES. 121 

2. Lege Sempronia] A law of C. Sempronius Gracchus 
(a.u. 631, B.C. 123), which provided that the consuls' future 
provinces should be assigned before the day of their election. 

3. P. Scipio Nasica] This was the son of the Scipio 
Nasica who slew Tiberius Gracchus (Appian, Bell. Civ. i. 16; 
Plutarch, Tib. Gracch. 19). 

4. L. Bestia Calpurnius] This unusual order of the 
names is found occasionally, as in Liv. xxvii. 6, Crassus Li- 
cinius. Nepos, Vit. Att. 18, Mareelli Claudii, Scipionis Cor- 
nelii. Veil. ii. 26, Ofella Lucretius. In Tacitus the usage is 
frequent, as Ann. ii. 7, Pollio Asinius. 

5. Obvenit] " Presents itself;" i.e. the lot turns up. 

6. Scribitur] "Is levied," or "enrolled:" the names of 
the enlisted soldiers being written on tablets. 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

1. In animo haeserat] " Was his firm and fixed opinion." 
Comp. Plin. Ep. x. 31, sed et illud haereat nobis. 

3. Legat] i.e. legatos tibi adsciscit, "appoints as his legati, 
lieutenants," viz. officers with whom the imperator advised on 
the conduct of the war, or to whom he intrusted the command 
of subsidiary expeditions. They were chosen by the imperator 
himself, subject to the approbation of the senate. 

3. Quae deliquisset munita fore sperabat] "He hoped 
any blunders of his own would be bolstered up." 

4. Nam] Not indicating the cause of what had been said, 
but introducing an illustration: " Now our consul, &c." Comp. 
Virgil, Geo. iv. 445, Nam quis te juvenum confidentissime ? 

5. Firmissimus contra pericula et insidias] In a moral 
sense, "determined," "unmoved." Tacitus, Ann. iii. 18, says 
of Tiberius : satis firmus adversus pecuniam. 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

1. Aeger avaritia] "Corrupted with avarice." So in 
Horace, avaritia laborare. 

2. Plerisque, etc.] " "While many of his (Scaurus's) friends 
and partizans had already been corrupted by the bribes of 
Jugurtha." Of the corruption of Scaurus himself, Floras says 
(iii. 1. 5), Quum Jugurtha in Scauro ipsos Romani imperii 
mores expugnavisset. 



122 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

3. Cum iis] i.e. with Bestia and Scaurus. 

4. De omnibus pactionibus] "On all the subjects of 
treaty," " all the conditions of peace." 

5. Praesens] " At once," " off-hand." 

6. Fidei caussa] " To keep faith with Jugurtha," accord- 
ing to agreement between them. 

7. Vaga] Or Vaca ; a city of Numidia near Cirta, modern 
Veyja. See Euperti on Sil. Ital. iii. 259, Turn Vaga et anti- 
quis dilectus regibus Hippo. Accordingly not Vacca y as found 
in many MSS. 

8. Deditionis mora] " While the treaty for a surrender 
was making slow progress." 

9. Praesenti consilio] "In the presence of his counsel- 
lors." Cic. Philipp. iv. 6, Senatum orbis terrae consilium. 
Caes. B. G. iii. 3, Galba consilio celeriter convocato. Con- 
cilium, which is read here in some editions, means simply, "an 
assemblage," i.q. coetus. 

10. Per saturam] "Opinions being asked in a confused 
irregular manner:" the lanx satura being a dish composed of 
various ingredients. Festus says, Satura est lex multis aliis 
legibus conferta : a comprehensive enactment, embracing many 
particulars. Per saturam legem ferre, is proverbial. Diomedes, 
Lib. iii., quotes a verse of Lucilius : 

Per saturam aedilem factum qui legibus solvat. 

11. Pro consilio] " Standing forth in the council." Pro, 
as in pro rostris, vro condone, &c, implying the position as- 
sumed by the speaker, stepping-forward to address his audience. 

12. Ad magistratus rogandos] "To preside in the co- 
mitia for the election of magistrates." The proposer of a law 
was said rogare legem, i.e. to ask the people's decision about 
a law. Hence the same phrase came to be adopted in regard 
to elections. Rogare magistratum is to propose the election oi 
a magistrate. 



CHAPTEE XXX. 

1. Parum constabat] Scil. iis, " The senators were un 
certain." 

2. Vindicandum] When put absolutely, as in Catil. 10 
i.q. puniendum. So below, Jugur. 45. 



NOTES. 123 

3. Pollens] " Effective." An epithet frequently applied 
by the later writers to language, as Lucan, vi. 685 : 

Tunc vox Lethaeos cunctis pollentior herbis 
Bxcantare Deos. 

Claud, vi. Cons. Honor. 501, quanta tuis facundia pollet In- 
geniis. 

4. Perscribere] It has been inferred from this word that 
the author has in this instance transcribed a genuine speech, 
instead of making one of his own invention. Some critics have 
fancied accordingly that the style is quite different from 
Sallust's own. I cannot perceive any material difference; the 
words are evidently Sallust's, and the most that can be reason- 
ably said, is that the substance may be derived from the 
genuine document. 



CHAPTEE XXXI. 

1. A vobis] i.e. ne rerum vestrarum cur am 
This seems to be imitated from a speech of Cato the censor, de 
Lusitanis, a fragment of which is preserved in A. Gellius, xiii. 
24, multa me dehortata sunt hue prodire, anni, aetas, vox, 
vires, senectus. 

2. studium reip.] Comp. Catil. 41, studium conjurationis; 
" zeal for." 

3. His annis xv.] "For these last fifteen years." The 
number is perhaps corrupt. The MSS. fluctuate between xv. 
xii. and x. It was twenty-two years from the death of Tib. 
Gracchus, ten years from that of Caius, either of which epochs 
might be pointed to. Cortius conjectures xx. as a round num- 
ber, which Kritz and Dietsch adopt. Gerlach retains xv. 

4. Vestri defensores] Scil. the Gracchi. 

5. Otmoxiis inimicis] "When your foes have fallen into 
your hands:" i.e. their guilt is detected, and they are unable 
to palliate it. Comp. the use of obnoxius in Catil. 20, 48. 
Liv. xxiii. 12, si reticeam aut superbus aut obnoxius videar, 
"if I keep silence I shall seem either to be proud or conscious 
of guilt." Dietsch in loc. "gravissime orator perstringit popu- 
larium socordiam, qui omnibus injuriis vexati, ne turn quidem 
ad strenue agendum parati erant, quum certam victoriam in 
manibus haberent." 

6. Experiar] "I will make trial of." Liv. xxxix. 26, 
licentiam vocis et linguae experiri. Plin. Paneg. 67, libertatem 
quam dedit experiemur. Juvenal i. extr. 



124 SALLUSTII JUQURTHA. 

7. Ob rem] i.q. in rem, or ex re. 

8. Suomet...more] i.q. suis moribus, "through their own 
vices." Mos sing, for mores plur. Gic. Acad. i. 10, virtutes 
natura aut more perfectae. 

9. Quaestiones nafcitae sunt] "Prosecutions were insti- 
tuted." Quaestiones, questions of caput, i.e. life and civil con- 
dition. 

10. Regni paratio] "Attempt at regal usurpation." 
(Comp. Gatii. 5, dum sibi regnum pararet. So infra, pa- 
randi juris gratia.) This is an ironical concession on the 
speaker's part. 

11. , Ulcisci] In a passive sense, as in Liv. v. 49, quae 
defendi repetique et ulcisci fas est. Yal. Flacc. iv. 750, lege 
occidit ultus ipse sua. "Activi ulciscerem exemplum tradidit 
ex Ennio Nonius, 292. 16." Dietsch. in loc. 

12. Nequltur] This passive form occurs in a fragm. of 
PacuVius, contendi nequitum: of Plautus, Eetrahi nequitum: 
of Cato, Orig. 1, quod Termino fanum fuit, id nequitum exau- 
gurari. Lucret. i. 1044, has queatur : and this word occurs 
also in Plautus and Terence. 

13. Expilari] Expilare, i.q. compilare, "to plunder, pil- 
lage. " The simple form pilo, from pilus, to drive a stake, to 
fix, or press. 

14. Parum] "Not enough;" minus quam par est. Used 
adjectively in the sense of parvum, little, or too little. So Cic. 
de Off. i. 25, quae est inter nimium et parum. 

15. Incedunt] "March with a grave, dignified gait." 
Virg. Aen. i. 50: 

Quae Divura incedo regina. 
And again : 

Et vera incessu patuit Dea. 

Lucret. iii. 75 : 

Macerat invidia ante oculos ilium esse potentera, 
Ilium aspectari claroque incedere honore. 

16. Per ora] "Before your eyes." Comp. Hor. Sat. ii. 

1.65: 

Nitidus qua quisque per ora 
Cederet introrsum turpis. 

Justin, xvi. 5, senatores per ora civium trahit. 

17. Imperio nati] Comp. Cic. de Prov. Cons. 5, nationes 
natae servituti. Tac. Agric. 31, nata servituti mancipia. Veil. 
ii. 118, natum mendacio genus. For the sentiment, comp. 



NOTES. 125 

Cic. Philipp. vi. in fin. Pop. Eom. servire fas non est quern 
Dii immortales omnibus gentibus imperare voluerunt. 

18. Libertatis curam] Comp. Lucan, iv. 808, si libertatis 
Superis tarn cura placeret Quam vindicta placet. 

19. Beneficia vestra] " The advantages," i.e. "magistra- 
cies and honours, which you have to bestow." 

20. Majestatis constituendae] Quintil. vii. 3, majestas 
est in imperio atque omni popuh Eom. dignitate. Cic. de Inv. 
ii. 17, majestatem minuere est de dignitate aut amplitudine 
aut potestate populi, aut eorum quibus populus potestatem 
dedit, aliquid derogare. 

21. Per secessionem] The two secessions referred to are 
probably those mentioned in Livy, ii. 32, and iii. 50, a.u. 260 
and 305. It seems that another historian, Piso, had said that 
the first secession was not to the Mons Sacer but to the Aven- 
tine, and this is the account which Sallust may have followed. 

There was a third secession to the Janiculan hill, a.tj. 406. 
Liv. Epit. xi. 

22. Si dediticius est] "If he has the temper of a subject." 
Dediticii, conquered people who submitted without conditions. 
Comp. Liv. vii. 31, omnia in vestram dicionem dedimus, quic- 
quid deinde patiemur, dediticii vestri passuri. 

23. Paces] • Cato, de Vit. Pop. Bom. apud Nonium, ii. 621, 
animadvertendum primum quibus de causis et quemadmodum 
constiterint paces. This the grammarian qualifies as "nove 
dictum." But the plural is also found in Plautus, Persae, v. 
1. 1, pacibus perfectis. Kritz in loc. So also Lucret. v. 1228, 
ventorum paces animasque secundas. Horat. Ep. ii. 1. 102. 

24. In perniciem casura] " Would end in your ruin." 

25. Quantum importunitatis habent] i.e. quae nimia eo- 
rum est importunitas, " so great is their insolence." 

26. Obedientes vivamus] Plus est quam obedientes simus, 
et perpetuitatem simul denotat. Cortius. Comp. Horat. Sat. 
ii. 2. 136: 

Quocirca vivite fortes, 
Fortiaque adversis opponite pectora rebus. 

So Ovid, Amor. iii. 9. 37, vive pius, moriere pius. Stat. Theb. 
xii. 441, vivunt odia improba, vivunt. 

27. Si injuriae non sint] The meaning is, it is of more 
importance to deter the evil -disposed than to encourage the 
good ; for if you can prevent crimes against the state by the 
fear of punishment, you will seldom require, the aid of your 
honest citizens for your defence. 



126 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 



CHAPTEE XXXII. 

1. Captae] " taken illegally." Tac. Ann. iii. 67, saevitiae 
captarumque pecuniarum teneri reum. 

2. Arcessebant] "Demanded for trial." Tac. Ann. ii. 50, 
arcessere majestatis. Suet. Claud. 37, arcessi statim ac mori 
jussus est, "to be tried and executed." 

3. Perfugas] Perfuga seems strictly to mean " one who 
seeks perfugium, refuge, by abandoning his post or party," 
trans fuga, " one who deserts his own party and takes refuge 
with another." But no such distinction is strictly observed. 

4. Talis ea tempestate fama de Cassio erat] " Such at 
that time was the estimation in which Cassius was held." 



CHAPTEE XXXIII. 

1. Contra decus regium] "In a manner the reverse of 
royal." Comp. Tac. Hist. i. 82, contra decus imperii, "the 
honour and glory of legitimate authority." Luc. vii. 588, of 
Brutus, decus imperii, spes suprema senatus. 

2. In vincula] " To prison." 

3. Numidiae] Gen. for abl. Numidia, "in Numidia." 
The use of the genitive for the name of a country is irregular ; 
but is here occasioned by the proximity of the genitive of a 
city, Eomae. In English we should say, at Eome, but in 
Numidia. 

4. Corrupturum] " He would injure." 

CHAPTEE XXXIV. 

1. Quae ira fieri amat] "Which anger delights to have 
used." Quintilian, iv. 3. 17, says: G-raeca vero translata vel 
Sallustii plurima, quale est vulgus amat fieri. This passage, 
apparently corrupt, has been supposed to refer to that before 
us, and has been variously altered to apply to it. In Thucyd. 
viii. 1, we find oirep faXei dij/j-os icomv\ and perhaps we should 
read facer e in Quintilian. The idiom <t>L\el ylyvecrdai is imitated 
by late Latin writers, as Auson. ad Gratian. 1, ut apud Deum 
fieri amat. Dictys, i. 3, sicut in re tali fieri amat; but this 
usage is not found in better authors. Still less would the 
Greek idiom of the verb sing, with the neuter plural be admis- 
sible. In Jugur. 41, we read: scilicet ea quae res secundae 
amant. 



NOTES. 127 



CHAPTEB XXXV. 

1. Invidia cum metu] "Public odium together with his 
own personal fear." 

2. Senescere] Used figuratively, as Sallust, Fr. Hist. i. 30, 
nisi quum ira belli desenuisset, and in other writers of the best 
class as Cic. Tusc. ii. 3, oratorum laus...senescit. Liv. xxx. 29, 
senescere Punicum bellum cernentes. v. 21, senescit pugna. 
Ovid more than once. So also Sil. Ital. iii. 581, virtus paula- 
tim evicta senescit. 

3. Maxime occulte] " If possible, secretly." Comp. Jugur. 
46, persuadet uti Jugurtham maxime vivum, sin id parum pro- 
cedat. necatum sibi traderent. 

4. Artifices] The substantive artifex used frequently as 
an adjective in the sense of "skilful." So Suet. Galig. 32, 
miles decollandi artifex, with which compare Lucan. viii. 673, 
nondum artis erat caput ense rotare. 

5. Egressus] "Goings out," "movements;" very fre- 
quently used by Tacitus; as Ann. xi. 12, Messallina (Silii) 
egressibus adhaerescere : and elsewhere. 

6. Ex eo numero qui...erant] By attraction for ex eorum 
numero. So also Jugur. 18, 38. 

7. Indicium profitetur] "Offers to make a disclosure." 
So Tac. Ann. vi. 3, summum supplicium decernebatur ni pro- 
fessus indicium foret. Suet. Bom. 17, professus conspirationis 
indicium et ob hoc admissus. 

8. Ex aequo bonoque, etc.] "Equitably, though not 
legally." 

9. Manifestus tanti sceleris] Properly "caught in the 
fact." So Gatil. 41. 52. 

10. Supra gratiam. etc.] " Beyond his means and influ- 
ence to appease." 

11. In priore actione] In the first actio, or pleading, the 
charges were rehearsed and witnesses examined. The defend- 
ant was then called upon to give bail for his appearance on a 
future day, when the accuser should proceed to comment upon 
the charges. In "prior e : " on occasion of the first proceed- 
ings." 

12. Ex amicis. . . vadibus] " He had given fifty sureties from 
among his friends." Vades, those who offer bail as sureties. 



128 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

13. Urbem venalem] These words should be construed 
as the exclamation of Jugurtha. They are reported as such by 
Livy, Epit. lxiv. and Floras, iii. 1. 18. The account in Livy 
differed from that of Sallust. The former stated that Jugurtha 
was himself put to trial for the murder of Massiva, and escaped 

secretly. Jugurtha propter caedem admissam in regulum 

quendam nomine Massivam, qui regnum ejus populo Kom. 
invisi affectabat, Eomae interfectum, quum periclitaretur, cau- 
sam capitis dicere jussus, clam profugit, et cedens urbe fertur 
dixisse, urbem, etc. Comp. Lucan, iv. ult. : 
Emere omnes, hie vendidit Urbem. 

CHAPTEB XXXVI. 

1. Ludificari] The reading of Kritz, for ludificare, in all 
the MSS.; the passage being thus quoted by Arusianus in v. 
ludificor; and the same form being found in Tacitus, Ann. iii. 
21, evidently imitated from this: Tacfarinas...spargit bellum; 
ubi instaretur cedens ac rursum in terga remeans ; et dum ea 
ratio barbaro fuit, irritum fessumque Eomanum impune ludifi- 
cabatur. 

2. Ex tanta properantia] i.e. ex praegressa tanta prope- 
rantia, "After so much haste;" ex implying change out of 
one state into another. Hand, Tursell. ii. 646. Ex, ut Grae- 
cum e/c, de proxima consecutione rerum ita usurpatur ut con- 
dicio dicatur ex qua alia condicio prodierit. Tac. Germ. 22, 
statim e somno lavantur. Liv. xxi. 39, otium ex labore, copia 
ex inopia, etc. 

3. Aulo fratre...pro praetore relicto] As one to whom 
the commander or praetor delegated his authority in his ab- 
sence. So Jugur. 104. 

CHAPTEB XXXVII. 

1. Continuare magistratum] " To continue their own 
magistracy;" "to keep themselves in office for a further term;" 
i.e. by interceding, i.e. interrupting by their veto the meetings 
of the people for the election of magistrates. So of the pro- 
longation of Caesar's proconsulate in Gaul, Lucan i. 275 : 

Quamvis nolente senatu 
Traximus imperium. 

2. Suthul] This place is unknown. Priscian mentions it 
as an instance of barbarous names ending in ul. In ul quoque 
unum reperitur masculinum Latinum, consul ; duo" communia, 
praesul, exsul ; et barbara Suthul, Muthul. 

3. In praerupti montis extremo] "At the foot of a pre- 
cipitous hill, surrounded by a morass." So we have summum 



NOTES. 129 

medium montis. This usage is common in Tacitus: medio 
campo, medio montium et paludum. So Livy : extremo aestatis ; 
extremum auctumni. The more correct idiom would be in ex- 
tremo monte. 

4. Cupidine caecus] Comp. Lucan, i. 87 : 

O male Concordes nimiaque cupidine caeci. 

5. Vineas agere] " To thrust mantlets forward." A mili- 
tary phrase adopted more than once by Caesar. 

6. Aggerem jacere] " Throw up a mound." More com- 
monly jacere fundamenta, to lay down, Horat. jactis in altum 
molibus. 

7. Incepto] " For his enterprise." 

8. Properare] This reading preferable to praeparare. So 
Jugur. 77, ni id festinaret. 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

1. Suodolus augere] The adjective is used in place of the 
adverb subdole, which indeed is found in some MSS. Comp. 
Ca,til. 60, illi haud timidl resistunt; for timide. Jugur. 4:4:, 
praedas ceriantes agere. 61, effecit uti ad se occultus veniat. 

2. Missitare] " To send frequently." A word which only 
occurs in Liv. ix. 4, and Plin. Hist. Nat. xxxiii. 1. Dietsch 
in loc. 

3. Vitabundus] " Constantly avoiding." The participial 
in bundus implies the force, frequency, or abundance of an 
action. It is generally formed from intransitive verbs. Here 
the verb is transitive, and Livy uses the phrase vitabundus 
castra, xxv. 13. Madvig, Latin Grammar, 115. 

4. Delicta] Referring to pactio. Jugurtha enticed Aulus 
into a remote place, where he might come to an understanding 
with the enemy undiscovered. But the passage seems to be 
corrupt, to judge from the variation of the MSS., and some 
editors have tried to make better sense of it by transferring it to 
another place, e.g. after desererent. 

5. Instruit] The present after postquam, frequent in Sal- 
lust, to give rapidity to the narrative. Comp. Gatil. 40. 57; 
Jugur. 66, 76, 79, 80, 84, 86. 

6. Periculum anceps] " The danger was double, whether 
they remained or fled," i.e. from the attack of the enemy, and 
from the darkness of the night; as explained by the words 
which follow. Anceps, i.e. ambiceps, "that can be taken up 
on either side; " hence may mean " double" or " doubtful." 

JUG. 9 



130 SALLUSTII JUGUETHA. 

7. Cohors una Ligurum] " A single cohort of Ligurian 
auxiliaries." There were ten cohorts to the Eoman legion; but 
the number of auxiliary cohorts was indefinite. 

8. Turma] A squadron of thirty horsemen. Ten turmae 
or thirty decuriae formed the complement of cavalry to the 
legion. 

9. Gregariis militibus] "Common soldiers," i.e. Eoman 
legionaries. 

10. Centurio primi pili] The Eoman legion before the 
time of Marius was arranged in three lines, called the hastati, 
principes, and triarii, or pilani. In each of these lines were 
ten ranks, or dines, and ten centurions. The centurion of the 
first rank of hastati was called primus hastatus y of the first of 
the principes, primus princeps, and of the first of the pilani, 
who ranked above all the rest, centurio primi pili, or primus 
pilus. See a remarkable passage in Livy, xlii. 34, about the 
rise of a common soldier through these stages of promotion. 

11. Remorata] Eemorari more forcible than morari. Ee- 
mora the name given to a fish that was supposed to cling to 
the keel of a vessel and impede its progress, Gr. exevqls', possi- 
bly the Octopus. 

12. Eaque] Scil. parte. 

13. Mutabant] Scil. mutabant se, i.q. permutaoantur, 
"they were set against the fear of death." This use of the 
active muto for the passive is not uncommon. Comp. Catull. 
xxii. 10. Liv. iii. 10. Tac. Ann. ii. 23, postquam mutabat 
aestus. But the reading rests upon a single MS.; the great 
variation of the codices being caused doubtless by the pecu- 
liarity of the idiom. 

CHAPTEE XXXIX. 

1. Dolere pro gloria imp.] " Grieved in regard to their 
glorious dominion." Comp. Cic. de Fin. i. 7, dolorem quern 
optimus quisque pro patria suscipit. Tac. Agric. 26, securi 
pro salute. 

2. Insolita] This part, usually passive, "id quod fieri non 
solet," here and elsewhere active, "quod facere (or pati) aliquid 
non solet." Comp. Fr. Sail. 202, genus armis ferox et servitii 
insolitum. Liv. x. 28, insolitos ejus tumultus conterruit 
equos. Caesar, Bell. Civ. iii. 85, insolitum ad laborem Pom- 
peii exercitum. 

3. Armatus] " Though with his arms in his hands." 



NOTES. 131 

4. Exercitu] Dat. cas., " for the army." So c. 84, pos- 
tulare legionibus supplementum. 

5. Nomine Latino] i.e. the cities which enjoyed the jus 
Latii or Latinitas, the Latin franchise, a certain portion of the 
rights of Roman citizenship. This franchise was first imparted 
to the cities of Latium; afterwards extended to many commu- 
nities throughout the dominions of the republic. It consisted 
in the jus connubii and commercii. The jus suffragii was not 
conceded till the year u.c. 664. In return, the Latins were 
bound to serve as auxiliaries by the side of the Eoman legions. 

6. Ita uti par fuerat] " So as there had been reason to 
expect;" there not only was reason then, but always had been, 
from the known principles of the republic. 

7. Mederi fraternae invidiae] "Allay the odium against 
himself, on account of his brother's misconduct." 

8. Soluto imperio] " In the relaxation of all discipline." 

9. Ex copia rerum] " With a regard to existing circum- 
stances." Comp. Jugur. 90, pro rei copia satis providenter 
exornat: 98, Marcius ex copia rerum consilium trahit. 



CHAPTER XL. 

1. Mamilius...promulgat] Cicero refers to the lex Ma- 
milia, Brut. 34, invidiosa lege Mamilia C. Galbam sacerdotem 
et quatuor consulares L. Bestiam, C. Catonem, Sp. Albinum, 
civemque praestantissimum L. Opimium, Gracchi interfecto- 
rem, a populo absolutum, quum is contra populi studium 
stetisset, Gracchani judices sustulerant. 

2. Neglegisset] An ancient form for neglexisset> cited by 
the grammarians, Diomedes and Priscian, from the historian 
iEmilius Macer. 

3. Impedimenta parabant] Scil. not by their votes in 
the comitia, for the Latins and Italians had no right of suf- 
frage ; but by creating disturbances at the place of voting. 

4. Vi] "With ardour;" used of moral purposes as well as 
physical acts. Comp. 92, quern locum Marius summa vi capere 
intendit. 

5. Jusserit, decreverit, voluerit] These words are accu- 
mulated emphasis gratia, but with no increase of force in the 
last. The common form is, velitis, jubeatis, Quirites. 

6. Trepida] " In a state of excitement." Persius, Sat. ii. 
54, laetari praetrepidum cor. 

9—2 



132 SALLUST1I JUGURTHA. 

7. Incredibile memoratu] The same phrase has occurred 
in Gatil. 6. So vix credibile memoratu in Tac. Hist. 

8. Ex rumore et lubidine plebis] " On mere rumour, and 
popular caprice." 



CHAPTEE XLI. 

1. Mos partium pop. et sen. factionum] " The system of 
having a popular party on the one side and an aristocratic 
faction on the other." F actio is generally said of the few, the 
nobles, pars of the people. 

2. Quae prima] The relative is referred not to the words 
themselves, but to the general sense of the antecedent. Comp. 
Jugur. 102, humanarum rerum fortuna pleraque regit. Cic. de 
Divin. ii. 57, earum rerum utrumque a corde proficisci. And 
on the other hand, Cic. ad Div. x. 21, omnia feci qua re resis- 
terem. 

3. Populus et senatus Rom.] The reverse order from that 
usually observed in combining these words, in order perhaps 
to mark that the two elements of the state are here regarded in 
distinction one from the other. 

4. Metus hostilis] "Fear of an enemy," i.q. remoto metu 
Punico, as in Jugur. 105. Tumultus Gallicus, "A call to arms 
on the alarm of an attack of the Gauls." 

5. Scilicet] " Then forsooth," ironically. For the neuter 
ea comp. Gatil. 31. 

6. Asperius acerbiusque] Scil. quam ipsae res adversae. 

7. Quae media fuerat] This expression, which seems to be 
imitated in Liv. ii. 57, and Seneca, Ep. 104, is taken from Thu- 
cydides, iii. 82, ra d£ \xkua tQ>v irokirCov U7r' d,a0oTfywj>...Sie00e/- 
povro. 

8. Factione magis pollebat] "Was strong by combina- 
tion;" "by acting together;" opposed to in multitudine. 

9. Militum] Scil. of the soldiers who were absent from 
home, and unable to protect their families from oppression. 

10. Nihil pensi] See on Catil. 5. 

11. Ex nobilitate reperti sunt] At last some of the nobles 
were found, such as the Gracchi, who preferred true glory to 
the tyranny of their class, and placed themselves at the head 
of a popular movement, which resulted in revolution. 



NOTES. 133 

12. Quasi permixtio terrae] "Like an earthquake," in 
which the strata of the soil are thrown. into confusion and 
change places. The boldness of the illustration is acknow- 
ledged by the word quasi, " as it were." 



CHAPTEE XLII. 

1. Majores] Tib. and C. Gracchus were grandsons on the 
mother's side of P. Scipio Africanus major, the conqueror of 
Hannibal. See Plutarch, Tib. Gracch. 1. 

2. Vindicare...in libertatem] "To claim freedom for the 
people :" the legal phrase for the declaration before the praetor 
of a slave's manumission. Vindicare may stand by itself. Liv. 
iii. 46, ita vindicatur Virginia spondentibus propinquis. 

3. Spes societatis] Scil. the hope of being conjoined with 
the nobility in the enjoyment of magistracies, provincial govern- 
ments, and other advantages. 

4. Eadem] Neut.plur. "undertaking the same enterprise." 
Liv. xlv. 23, vix ea quibus fidit ingredientem. 

5. Triumvirum col. deduc] One of three commissioners 
for establishing colonies of Koman citizens on the public do- 
mains. 

6. Sane] "It must be allowed." The partiality of the 
writer for the Gracchi has already been shewn in the use of the 
word necaverat, " murdered." 

7. Bono] "To a good man." 

8. Malo more] "After a bad fashion, ' so as to become 
mali exempli, a bad precedent. Comp. Tac. Ann. i. 35, saevum 
id malique moris etiam saevientibus visum est. 

9. Ferro aut fuga exstinxit] The figure zeugma, where 
one verb is coupled with two substantives though its sense 
applies properly only to one. Thus extingui ferro, "to be 
destroyed by the sword," is a legitimate expression, but not 
extingui fuga. Exstinguere (Gr. (rrlfa) "to prick or scratch 
out." 

10. Ulcisci] " To punish," " to wreak vengeance upon." 
This is the primary meaning of the word, to avenge (an injury, 
a friend,) is secondary, and much less frequent. For the sense 
of the passage compare Thucyd. iii. 82, iravn U Tpbwq, /c.r.X. 

11. Si...parem] " If I should undertake." 



134 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 



CHAPTEE XLIII. 

1. Q. Metellus] Of the gens Caecilia. He obtained a 
triumph and the surname Numidicus, for his victories over 
Jugurtha. Yell. ii. 11, Metelli tamen triumphus fuit clarissi- 
mus, meritumque virtuti cognomen Numidici inditum. Comp. 
Ovid, Fast. i. 595: 

Hunc Numidae faciunt, ilium Messana superbum. 

2. M. Silanus] Of the gens Junia. As consul he led an 
army against the Cimbri in Transalpine Gaul, and sustained a 
defeat, a.u. 645. 

3. Partiverant] Partiri provincias is the usual phrase. 
So Liv. ix. 41. The active form is supported in this place by 
the consent of the MSS., and by Servius, on Aen. i. 197, who 
adds, nam et partio et partior dicimus. 

4. Adverso...partium] "An opponent of." Adversus is 
sometimes used substantially, as adversarius, amicus, inimi- 
cus, etc. See Arusianus in voc. adversus illius. Gram. Lat. 
Vet. i. 211. Ed. Lindemann. 

5. Fama...aequabili] "His reputation was consistent, 
and unimpeachable." Comp. Tac. Ann. vi. 31, Artabanus 
iidus Komanis aequabilis in suos. Hist. iv. 5, cunctis vitae 
officiis aequabilis. 

6. Alia omnia sioi cum collega ratus] Subaud. communia. 
Comp. Cic. ad Div. xiii. 1, cum Patrone epicureo mihi omnia 
sunt, nisi quod in philosophia vehementer ab eo dissentio. 
The ordinary duties of the consulship, such as the taking of 
auspices, &c, he considered common to himself and his col-, 
league; but the war in Numidia was his own sole affair, as that 
in Gaul was the province of Silanus. 

7. Bello vario] "A war which would require a variety of 
action," such as sieges, battles, foraging, &c; and therefore, 
" for which resources of many kinds would be necessary." 

8. Invictum animum] Comp. Tac. Ann. xv. 21, invictus 
adversum gratiam animus. Justin, xii. 15, in mortem invictus 
animus. 

CHAPTEE XLIV. 

1. Praedator ex sociis] i.e. ex agro sociorum, as Jugur. 88, 
ex sociis nostris praedam agentis. Liv. xxiv. 47. 

2. Sine imperio et modestia] "Without authority on the 
part of the officers, or obedience on that of the men." 



NOTES. 135 

3. Aestivorum tempus] Scil. castrorum, "the season of 
summer operations." Veil. ii. 105, anni ejus aestiva neque in 
mensem Decembrem perducta. 

4. Comitiorum mora] The elections had been deferred by 
the intrigues of certain tribunes. See above, c. 37. 

5. Laborare] "To submit to training by camp-labour," 
i.e. digging, carrying, watching, &c. The watchword given by 
the military emperor Severus on his death-bed was, Laboremus. 

6. Stativis castris] i.e. the fixed camps in which the 
soldiers were retained in the winter, opposed to aestiva, the 
temporary encampments which were made during active service. 

7. Odos] The old form of odor : scil. the noisome effluvia 
arising from a permanent camp. 

8. Neque... vigiliae deducebantur] "Nor were sentinels 
placed:" as coloniam deducere, to lead forth a colony, and 
place or plant it. 

9. Certantes agere] " To rival one another in carrying 
off;" the participle being used adverbially. See note 1 on 
cap. 38, subdolus agere. 

CHAPTER XLY. 

1. Ambitionem] Ambitio on the part of a general is relax- 
ation of discipline for the sake of winning popularity with the 
soldiers. Comp. Tae. Hist. ii. 12, Suedius Clemens ambitioso 
imperio milites regebat, ut adversus modestiam disciplinae 
corruptus, ita proeliorum avidus. 

2. Sustulisse] Scil. comperior, from the last sentence. 

3. Ceteris] Scil. rebus, "he corrected other matters in 
regard to which discipline was relaxed, not by direct coercion, 
but by art and management:" arte opposed to edicto. Kritz. 
Others explain arte as an old form of the adverb arete; "he 
forbade some indulgences altogether, others he confined within 
strict limits." This latter sense is preferable. 

4. Circumire] "To go the rounds;" "to visit the senti- 
nels' posts at night." 

5. Cum signis frequentes] "In close array about their 
standards." 

6. Cibum et arma portaret] Comp. Cic. Tusc. ii. 16, mi- 
litiae qui labor, quantus agminis ! f erre plus dimidiati mensis 
cibaria, ferre si quid ad usum velint, ferre vallum. Nam scu- 



136 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

turn, gladiuin, galeam in onere milites non plus numerant quam 
humeros, lacertos, manus. Sometimes the legionary carried a 
month's provision. Liv. xliv. 2, consul menstruum jusso mi- 
lite secum ferre profectus. This provision was frumentum, 
wheat or barley in the ; grain. 

CHAPTEE XLYL 

1. Certior Eomae factus] "Having ascertained, during 
his residence in Rome, the integrity of Marcellus's character." 
Nonius in v. Innocens, iv. 245, gives Boma, i.e. "having received 
information from Rome;" but all the MSS. read Romae. 

2. Cum suppliciis] "With earnest entreaties." Comp. 
Jugur. 66, Vagenses fatigati regis suppliciis. Supplicia may 
also mean "ensigns of supplication," UeT-rjplaL (comp. Soph. 
Oed. Tyr. 3), as Festus explains the word; supplicia sunt quae 
caduceatores portant : ea sumebantur ex verbena felicis arboris. 
So Virgil, Aen. xi. 100: 

Jamque oratores aderant ex urbe Latina, 
Velati ramis oleae, veniamque rogantes. 

3. Adgreditur] "Accosts," implying properly, motion 
towards a person in order to address him. 

4. Palam, quae ex voluntate, etc.] " Openly Metellus de- 
sired to be informed what would be agreeable to Jugurtha." 

5. Intento atque infesto] "Prepared for fighting and in 
hostile array;" not in the loose order in which an army marches 
through a friendly territory, or in time of peace. So Lucan, i. 
5, infestisque obvia signis signa: standards arrayed against 
each other for battle. Compare also Lucan, x. 436 : 

Cum procul a muris acies non sparsa maniplis 
Nee vaga conspicitur, sed justos qualis in hostes 
Recta fronte venit. 

6. Contra belli faciem] " With an appearance the reverse 
of warlike." 

7. Commeatum portare] "To transport provisions for 
the Romans." 

8. Insidiis locum tentari] " An opportunity for treachery 
was sought." 

9. Curabat] " Took the direction," "commanded:" used 
absolutely, in a military sense. Comp. Jugur. 60, Marius in ea 
parte curabat. Catil. 59, Faesulanum quendam in sinistra 
parte curare jubet. Tacitus, Ann. i. 31, adds the accus. of the 
object: exercitum Caecina curabat. 

10. Velites] "Light-armed troops," used as auxiliaries 
to the legion, but not forming part of the three lines. 



NOTES. 137 

CHAPTEE XLVII. 

1. Forum rerum venalium] " A commercial emporium." 

2. Celebratum] "Frequented:" frequens relates to per- 
sons or things ; celeber or Celebris is confined to persons. Doe- 
derlein, Synon. i. 25. Hence celeber comes to mean one who is 
much spoken of by men. Tac. Ann. ii. 88, Arminius...canitur 
adhuc barbaras apud gentes...Bomanis haud perinde Celebris. 

3. Tentandi gratia] Metellus places a garrison in Vaga on 
two accounts ; first, in order to try and seduce the inhabitants 
from their fidelity to Jugurtha: and, secondly, because of the 
eligibility of the position for a Roman station, if they should 
consent to be seduced. 

4. Opportunitate loci] i.e. propter opp. loci. So Tac. Agric. 
45, felix...non vitae tantum claritate, sed etiam opportunitate 
mortis. 

5. Huc.praesidium imposuit] Imponere with an adverb 
of place. Comp. Jugur. 54, ubicunque res postulabat praesi- 
dium impositum. 66, quo Metellus praesidium imposuerat. 
75, eoque imponit vasa. The reading huic, which is supported 
by a few MSS. only, is not necessary. 

6. Juvaturum] This form occurs also in Plin. Ep. iv. 15, 
as sonaturum in Hor. Sat. i. 4. 44. 

7. Impensius modo] i.e. supra modum impense. The ablat. 
after the compar., "beyond measure earnestly." The same 
phrase occurs Jugur. 75. Some understand in both places modo 
as a conj. and the phrase = etiam impensius quam ante. 

8. Dedere] " Offered to surrender." 



CHAPTER XLVIII. 

1. Tramites] "By-paths;" opposed to military ways or 
high roads. 

2. Vastus ab natura] "Naturally desolate;" as ab equi- 
tatu firmus, ab doctoribus instructus; "on the part of." Vastus 
ab humano cultu, "as regards (the want of) cultivation:" qu. 
incultu. Comp. Catil. 55. 

3. Ex medio quasi] "From about the middle." Comp. 
Jugur. 50, praesidio quasi duum millium montem occupat. 
Fragm. 218, quasi par in oppido festinatio. 



138 SALLUSTII JUGURTI1A. 

4. Pertingens] "Stretching on." There is said to be 
no instance of the word being thus used, and some critics would 
read pertinens, but unnecessarily. 

5. Humi] Gen. cas. as, Tac. Ann. i. 61, humido paludum ; 
iv. 41, secreto loci. 

6. Consita] "Planted:" but as a stronger word than the 
simple satus, it here means "overgrown." Virg. Aen. iii. 127, 
crebris legimus freta consita terris : " thick set." 



CHAPTEE XLIX. 

1. Transverso itinere] "In a direction at right angles," 
i.e. to the mountain. 

2. Extenuata acie] " Drawn out in a thin line." Comp. 
Suet, de Bell. Affic. 14, adversariorum equitatus sese exten- 
dens, et...Caesaris equitatum extenuare. So applied to the 
scar of a wound; Catull. lxiv. 296, Extenuata gerens veteris 
vestigia poenae. 

3. Suos] " His own division." 

4. Manipulos] "Bands of infantry:" the Roman term 
applied loosely to the array of a foreign people. 

5. Decuerint] Scil. provideri; to be supplied from pro- 
viso,, which follows. Decuerit would be the proper construc- 
tion. 

6. Locum superiorem, etc.] Observe the four particulars 
in which Jugurtha had provided, like a good general, for vic- 
tory; 1. higher ground; 2. knowledge of the country, and of 
the kind of warfare required in it; 3. no inferiority in numbers; 
4. nor in skill and discipline. 

7. Prudentes] Scil. belli; in everything relating to the 
conduct of the war. Fragm. Hist. iv. 12, belli prudentibus. 

8. Pecunia aut honore extulerat] "Had advanced in 
wealth or dignity :" the proper meaning of extollere, to raise, 
promote, is extended by a zeugma to pecunia, which should 
properly be connected with such a word as ornare, or locuple- 
tare. 

9. Conspicatur] Scil. hostes: MSS. conspicitur. But 
Donatus quotes Sallust's use of conspicor for conspicio; and the 
passage evidently requires the active sense here. 



NOTES. 139 

10. Equi Numidaeque] "The Numidians, horse and 
foot."' So equi virique for equites peditesque. Caes. B. G. viii. 
36, Germanos equitesque. 

11. Incerti quidnam esset] Passive "they were not 
clearly distinguished, as to what it was they were." 

12. Commutatis ordinibus in dextero latere] "Facing 
right about." Jugurtha occupied the hill on the right of the 
Koman army as it descended the mountain. 

13. Triplicibus subsidiis] "In three lines, supporting 
each other:" the usual Eoman battle-array. 

14. Transversis principiis] " With the first rank at right 
angles to the line of march." Principes are properly the 
second line, but principia the first rank of any line. The army 
having wheeled right about, continues to descend, in three 
columns, instead of, as before, in three lines. 

CHAPTEE L. 

1. Rutilium] Consul with Marius a.u. 649. 

2. Cum expeditis cohortibus] i.e. sine impedimentis, 
" leaving their baggage behind to expedite then movement." 

3. Crebro impetu et transversis proeliis] " By repeated 
attacks and skirmishes on his flank." 

4. Quoniam armis diffiderent] " Since they, the Nu- 
midians, dared not engage in a pitched battle." 

5. Post principia] "Behind the first rank, in the first 
line ;" which in the movement which Metellus was executing, 
became the right wing of the army, and was immediately 
opposed to the flank attacks of the Numidians. On the other 
hand, the left wing had become the first rank of the advancing 
columns, who are here called principes. See ^bove, xl. note 14. 

6. Primos suos] Scil. his own left wing, which was most 
in advance towards the mountain. 

7. Quasi duum millium] i.e. circiter. Comp. Suet. Calig. 
58, Hora quasi septima. duum, as in Jugur. 91, 106; but 
duorum, c. 79. 

8. Adesse] Sometimes in the sense of attacking, harass- 
ing, particularly when coupled with an adjective of similar 
signification : as Liv. xxv. 34, Masinissa assidue noctes diesque 
infestus aderat. Flor. iii. 5, aderat, instabat, saevitia quasi 
virtute utebatur. 



140 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

9. Ludificati incerto proelio] "Amused by a desultory 
mode of warfare." The verb is here passive, but active supra, 
c. 26. 

10. Ipsi modo] " Themselves only," i. q_. ipsi soli. 

11. Numero priores] " Being superior in numbers," soil, 
the Numidians. 

12. Disjectos ... circumveniebant] " Overwhelmed them 
in their confusion." So Jugur. 53, disjectos circumveniri 
vident. Comp. Gatil. 39, circumventus ab inimicis praeceps 
agor. 34, se falsis criminibus circumventum. 

13. Eavero] Soil, via, or parte, "in that direction." 

14. Consueti . . . equi] "Accustomed to the hills and 
bushes;" not consueti evadere. 



CHAPTER LI. 

1. Alii insectui] " Others (Numidians) pursued. " 

2. Observare] "to pay attention to." servare would be 
more fitly applied to or dines, to keep the ranks. 

3. In armis omnia sita] "all our lives and fortunes are 
placed in fighting." So Lucan, vii. 348, medio posuit Deus 
omnia campo : a metaphor from the prize of victory set before 
the combatants. Comp. Jugur. 54, spes omnis in fuga sita. 
Gatil. 20. 

4. Hostibus dubiis] " Such of the enemy as were shaken 
and confused, though not yet broken." 

5. Quos firmos.-.retinere] "Such as kept their ground 
firmly he occupied with distant volleys." 



CHAPTER LH. 

1. Ipsi pares] equally matched as a pair of gladiators. 
Lucan, i. 129, of Caesar and Pompey, Nee coiere pares. 

2. Die vesper] Comp. Jugur. 106, ubi castra locuta et 
diei vesper erat. Die, the old gen. for diei. See note 3 on 
c. 21. Vesper is never used without diei in Gatil. and Jugur. 
Dietsch. 

3. Adverso colle] i.e. the Romans charge up the hill on 
their right, on which the Numidians were posted : the ablat. o\ 
position, as trita via incedere, monteaspero decurrere. 



NOTES. 141 

4. Evadunt] i. q. enituntur. Comp. Sil. Ital. iii. 528 : 

Q,uoque magis subiere jugo atque evadere nisi 
Erexere gradum crescit labor. 

5. Tutata] The neuter predicate connected regularly with 
things. So tempus et ratio belli... permissa sunt. Liv. xxxv. 
25, labor voluptasque, dissimillima natura, societate quadam 
inter se juncta sunt. Liv. v. 4. Comp. Jugur. 68, ira et aegri- 
tudo permixta sunt. 

6. Quid ubique] "What anywhere:" scil. quovis loco. 
The sense et ubi, " what the enemy was doing, and where he 
was," is also admissible. Comp. Jugur. 54, Jugurtha ubi 
gentium aut quid agitaret. 

7. Animo vacuum] Not " idle," vacuus a curis, but "re- 
laxing from his anxieties." 

8. Ex Jugurthae proelio] "From the quarter where Ju- 
gurtha was engaged." 

9. Arete statuerat] " Had drawn up in close array." 



CHAPTEE LIII. 

1. Aequafoilem] Sc. pulverem, "constant," "not dis- 
persed." 

2. Sicuti acies movebatur] " As the army moved." Sicuti 
has sometimes the force of quasi, tanquam si, as if: comp. 
Catil. 38, alii sicuti populi jura defenderent : but with the sub- 
junct. mood. 

3. Fugam faciunt] In Sallust /. facere, always "to fly:" 
in other writers, " to put to flight;" i. q. infugam conjicere. 

4. Fessi lassique] " Weary and exhausted." The second 
word rather stronger than the first, not, as often explained, 
lassus de corpore fessus de animo. 

5. Amplius opinione] "Longer than was expected." 
Comp. Cic. ad Div. xiv. 23, opinione celerius. 

6. Strepitu...adventare] So, clamore invader -e, silentio 
egredi, etc. Kritz compares also Jugur. 64, cupidine atque 
ira...grassari. 

7. Betractant] This antique form appears in the MSS., 
and was used by Sallust. Detractare, detrectare, to pull down 
violently, to disparage, defame. Comp. Tac. de Orat. 26, 
detractare antiquos oratores. Ovid, Rem. Am. 365, Ingenium 
magni detractat livor Homeri. 



142 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 



CHAPTEB LIV. 

1. la contione] "In a public assembly," "on parade," 
from the verb convenio. Hence fig. the speech addressed to 
an assembly. 

2. Laudat atque agit gratias] Soil. Us. Comp. Gatil. 
13, quippe quas honeste habere hcebat, abuti (sc. lis) per 
turpitudinem properabat. Cic. ad Div. xiii. 4, Sed haec eo 
spectant ut te horter et suadeam (sc. tibi). 

3. Pro praeda] i.e. ad praedam faciendam, " for the sake 
of booty." 

4. Cogebat] " Was levying." 

5. Hebetem infirmumque] " Eude and feeble." Hebes fig. 
of soldiers untrained, or slow and stupid from want of proper 
military spirit. Tacit. Hist. ii. 99, hebes ad sustinendum labo- 
rem miles. So in Greek afifiXfrrepos irpbs rr\v fidxW' Plutarch, 
Vit. Alcib. Celsus, de medicina, i. 1, Ignavia corpus hebetat, 
labor firmat. Ovid, Metam. xiii. 135 : 

Huic modo ne prosit quod, ut est, hebes esse videtur. 

6. Ea gratia] ** On that account," for ejus ret gratia. 

7. Ex fuga] "In his flight," "when flying." Comp. 
Jugur. 56, Jugurtha cognoscit Marium ex itinere frumentatum. 
Gatil. 34, Catilina ex itinere... litter as mittit. Liv. xxx. 7, 
Hasdrubal ex fuga...urbem proximam petierat: where the 
action proceeds out of the flying, marching, &c. If it were 
said that anything happened to a person in his flight, e.g. the 
enemy overtook him while fleeing, it would be in fuga, in 
itinere. 

8. Flagitium militiae] "A military crime." 

9. Iniquum] " Unequal." Virg. Aen. x. 889, pugna con- 
gressus iniqua. 

10. Temere] Scil. " irregularly, insufficiently.' 

11. Sine praesidio] "Undefended." Comp. Jugur. 66, 
milites palantes et sine imperio aggrediuntur. 

12. Ea formidine] Scil. ejus rei formidine. Comp. Virg. 

Aen. viii. 704 : 

Actius haec cernens arcum intendebat Apollo 
Desuper; omnis eo terrore iEgyptus et Indi, 
Omnis Arabs, omnes vertebant terga Sabaei. 

In the same way quo for cujus rei. Catil. 43, quo tumultu. 
Jugur. 104, quo metu. 



NOTES. 143 

13. Sua loca...in alienls] sua i.q. commoda, "a position 
chosen by himself;" aliena, the contrary. So Jugur. 61, 
neque Jugurtham nisi ex insidiis aut suo loco'pugnam facere. 
Liv. xlii. 43, quum Perseus suo maxime tempore et alieno 
hostibus incipere bellum posset. 

14. Ex copia] Soil, rerum quae suppetebat, "under the 
circumstances." Comp. Jugur, 39, 98, ex copia rerum. The 
MSS. however for the most part read ex inopia. 

15. Plerumque] " The greater part of his army," not 
adverbial, but in its proper adjectival sense. So also the femin. 
sing, occasionally in Sallust: as Gatil. 17, juventus pleraque; 
17, pleraque nobilitas; Jugur. 79, pleraeque Africae im- 
peritabant. 

CHAPTEK LV. 

1. Magnificum] i.q. superbientem, "exulting." Comp. 
Jugur. 31, incedunt per ora vestra magnifici. 

2. Supplicia] Here i.q. supplicationes, "a public thanks- 
giving," or lectisternium, when the sacred images were laid on 
couches, and a banquet served to them. Tac. Ann. iii. 64, 
turn supplicia Dis ludique magni decernuntur. This ceremony 
was repeated for several days, according to the importance of 
the occasion ; sometimes as many as fifty. For other senses of 
the word see c. xlvi. 2. 

3. Post gloriam] "After glory has been attained." So 
post insidias Jugurthae, " after the stratagems he had experi- 
enced." 

4. Effuso] " Scattered and straggling," opposed to in- 
tento. Jugur. 105, temere et effuse euntes. Q. Curtius, ix. 8, 
barbari effuse sequentes. 

5. Praeda ager vastabatur] i.e. praedatione. Comp. Liv. 
xxii. 9, praeda ac populationibus.-.Marsos devastat. 

6. Otium pati] " To suffer the Romans to rest. ' 



CHAPTEK LVI. 

1. Arcem regni] " The citadel of the realm," as regarded 
the part of the country in which it was situated. Comp. Liv. 
xliv. 31, Gentius earn sibi ceperat velut regni totius arcem. 
Cic. pro Ligar. 7, Africam omnium provinciarum arcem. Livy 
uses the phrase figuratively, Consulatum, arcem libertatis: 



144 SALLUSTII JUQUETHA. 

Tacitus, Classem, arcem commeatuum. Poetically, Statius, 
Sylv. ii. 2. 131: 

Celsa tu mentis ab arce 
Despicis errantes, humanaque gaudia rides. 

The situation of Zama in the centre between the gulf of 
Carthage and the lesser Syrtis shews how narrow were the 
limits of the Roman province at this time. It was afterwards 
included in Zeugitana, the district of which Utica was the 
capital. 

Zama, the second or eastern capital of the kings of Nu- 
midia, was styled by the Eomans Regia, and is not to be 
confounded with the Zama where the great battle between 
Scipio and Hannibal was fought, which lay forty or fifty 
miles to the west. Mannert, Geography of the Greeks and 
Romans, x. 2, 356. 

2. Fallere] i. q. fidem mutare, "to change sides." If they 
Had gone over to the Romans they would have been treated 
with rigour as deserters. 

3. Ex itinere] Comp. Jugur. 54, ex fuga; and see note 
there. 

4. Sicca] A town of Numidia on the banks of the river 
Bagrada, lying centrally between Utica, Zama, and Oirta. It 
was called by the Romans Sicca Venerea, from a temple of the 
Phoenician Venus. Val. Max. ii. 6, 15 ; Mannert, x. 2, 322. 

5. Fortunam illis praeclarl facinoris casum dare] For- 
tunam, the subject; casum, the object: "fortune gave them 
the opportunity of performing a noble exploit." Comp. Jugur. 
25, sese casum victoriae inventurum. Tac. Ann. xii. 28, Si 
Chatti casum pugnae praeberent. xiii. 36, bene gerendae rei 
casum offerri. 

CHAPTER LVII. 

1. Glande aut lapiditras] Comp. Liv. xxxviii. 21, sa- 
gittis, glande, jaculis, configebantur. Glande the collective 
sing, as c. 17, arbore infecundus. Catil. 50, nonnulli equites 
Romani . . . gladio minitabantur . 

2. Succedere] With ace. or dat. succedere murum or 
moenibus, or with prep. ad % propius ad rem altam arduamque 
accedere. So in Greek, V7repxt(rdcu. Homer, II. ii. 492, ixvr\- 
cralaO' ocroi virb "Tkiov rj\dov. 

3. Proelium [in] manitous facere] Most of the MSS. read 
in manibus; scil. facerent proelium in manibus, i.e. cominus: 
but the phrase seems to want precise authority. Such phrases 



NOTES. 145 

as Sil. Ital. xii. 196, stat campus et arma, Et Mars in manibus, 
and Lucan, vii. 253. In manibus vestris, quantus sit Caesar, 
habetis, rather mean " in your power to use." 

CHAPTEE LVIII. 

1. Portam irrumpit] Eor in portam irr. This poetical 
usage is affected by Sallust, comp. Jugur. 25 ; and imitated by 
Tacitus (Ann. i. 48; ii. 62. Hist. i. 61; iii. 47; iv. 15, 50, etc.). 

2. Nominis Romani] "Of the fame of Rome." Comp. 
Livy iv. 33, nominis Romani ac virtutis patrum vestraeque 
memores. Lucan, viii. 798, Romanum nomen et omne Im- 
perium Magno est tumuli modus. 

3. Pauci in plurifous minus frustrati] "Being few in 
number, and therefore sparse in array, while the enemy being 
more numerous were more densely posted, they missed their 
aim less frequently of the two. " Frustrati, passive. 

4. Propere . . . statim] ' ' Quickly . . . immediately. " The 
cavalry are sent speedily, Marius himself immediately, without 
a moment's delay. 

CHAPTER LIX. 

1. In proximo] Scil. loco, " nearest to the enemy.' 

2. Quivissent...facerent] The imperf. does not stand for 
the plusq. perf., but indicates that the slaughter was still 
in progress when the Numidians had already been enabled to 
maintain their ground. Comp. Floras, iii. 3, 13, Cimbri si 
statim infesto agmine urbem petissent, grande discrimen esset : 
i.e. the Cimbri did not attack the city immediately, and 
accordingly the danger which was impending became averted. 
Cic. Brut. 10, neque enim jam Troicis temporibus tantum 
laudis in dicendo Ulixi tribuisset Homerus...nisi jam turn 
esset honos eloquentiae; i.e. great honour was already paid 
to eloquence at the time when Homer so praised Ulysses. 
Kritz in loc. 

3. Pedites cum equititous permixti] Of this mode of 
fighting among the Numidians, we read in Auct. de Bell. Afric. 
69, Numidae...mirabili velocitate praediti, qui inter equites 
pugnabant. Caesar himself introduced this practice into his 
own legions. 

4. Victos. dare] i. q. vincere: an antique or poetical usage. 
It occurs frequently in Plautus. Comp. Liv. viii. 6, sic stratas 
legiones Latinorum dabo. Virg. Aen. xii. 437, nunc te mea 
dextera bello Defensum dabit. Aen. xi. 334, quando tot stragis 
acervos Teucrorum tua dextra dedit. So also dicta dare for 
dicere. 

JUG. 10 



146 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

CHAPTEE LX. 

1. Eo] i.e. eo loci, ibi. 

2. Oppugnare, aut parare] Scil. oppidani, "the towns- 
people opposed the Eomans in person, or prepared means of 
defence." Parare, i. q. instituere quae in rem et usum sint. 

3. Sicuti audiri...possent] " Howsoever they might make 
themselves heard." 

4. Niti corporibus] "Gesticulated," i.e. "indicated by 
the motion of their bodies what they would have their com- 
rades do." 

5. Studio suorum adstrictis] "Engrossed with anxiety 
for their friends." Studio is ablat. Comp. Curt. vi. 8, reli- 
gione deum adstrictus. 

6. Unae atque alterae] Comp. Cic. ad Att. xiv. 18, ad- 
ductus sum tuis et unis et alteris litteris. Unus et alter signi- 
fies any small number. Unus in the plural is used with words 
that have no singular, or that are generally found in the plural: 
accordingly with scalae, " steps." 

CHAPTEE LXI. 

1. Ab Zama] If it were meant that Metellus withdrew out 
of Zama, the preposition would be unnecessary; here it im- 
plies that he retired from before the town. Hand, Tursell. i. 
10, foil. 

2. Ceterum exercitum] "The rest of his army." Cete- 
rum, that which is added to complete a thing, the complement : 
reliquum, that which remains after subtracting from a thing, 
the remnant. 

3. In provinciam] The accus. is required by the idea of 
motion in collocare. So Caes. B. G. viii. 46, in fines posuit. 

4. Quae proxima. " The part of the province which lies 
nearest to Numidia." The conjectural reading qua is unneces- 
sary. Comp. Jugur. 78, inter eos et frequentem Numidiam, 
" the populous part of Numidia." 

5. De Massivae nece judicium] i. q. judicium necis : a? 
Catil. 35, conscientia de culpa, i.e. culpae. See c. 35, th( 
story of the murder of Massiva, and Bomilcar's escape froir 
judicial investigation. 

6. Per max. amicitiam] "Through his close intimacy 
with Jugurtha." 



NOTES. 147 



CHAPTEE LXII. 

1. Aliquando] i. q. tandem aliquando, "at length." 
Comp. Catil. 52, expergiscimini aliquando et capessite rempub- 
licam. Jugur. 14, utinam aliquando apud Deos rerum huma- 
narum cura oriatur. 

2. Sibi consulant] "Take care of themselves," i.e. aban- 
don their sovereign. The phrase is generally used of persons 
whose affairs are desperate. Ovid, Metam. ii. 141, Quae juvet 
et melius quam tu tibi consulat opto. 

3. Facturum...tradere] "Promised to submit,... and was 
actually delivering up himself and his kingdom." Imperata 
facere is the proper formula for an unconditional' surrender. 

4. Ad imperandum] Not passive, as generally explained, 
"to be ordered, to receive orders;" but active, according to the 
proper signification of the gerund, " for Metellus to order, i.e. 
to dispose of." Comp. Lucret. i. 313, annulus in digito sub- 
tertenuatur habendo, i.e. " by wearing it ; " where observe 
subter, "from the inner side;" iv. 1062, ulcus enim vivescit 
et inveterascit alendo, "by cherishing it." Quintil. xi. 2, me- 
moria excolendo augetur, "by cultivating it." 

5. Tisidium] A place not elsewhere mentioned. 

6. Ex mala conscientia] "Of his own bad conscience." 
Comp. above, ex itinere, ex fuga. 

7. Casus in servitium ex regno] Comp. Senec. Phorn- 
599, In servitutem cadere de regno grave est. 



CHAPTEE LXIH. 

1. Praeter vetustatem familiae] "Except ancient de- 
scent." Marius was a new man of obscure origin, from the 
municipium of Arpinum in the country of the Volsci. He was 
a simple peasant, and had entered the legions as a common 
soldier. He rose to the consulship, which he enjoyed seven 
times, and was leader of the popular party at Eome against the 
nobles. Comp. Jugur. 85, mihi spes omnes in memet sitae. 
Veil. ii. 128, Marium ignotae originis Eomani nominis habuere 
principem. Val. Max. vi. 9. 14, ex illo Mario tarn humili Ar- 
pini, tarn ignobili Eomae. Juvenal viii. 246 : 



Arpinas alius Volscorum in monte solebat 
Poscere mercedes alieno lassus aratro. 



10—2 



148 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 11, ille arator Arpinas et manipularis im- 
perator. Plutarch, vit. Marii, 3, yevofievos 5e yoveuv iravTOLTra- 
<tlv ddo^cov, avTOvpyoov re ical irevrjTCjv. 

2. Belli] "In war," i.e. abroad; as domi, "at home:" 
the genitivus loci. 

3. Natus et...altus] "Born and bred." So Cic. de clar. 
Orat. c. 10, urbs in qua et nata et alta est eloquentia. 

4. A populo petit] The military tribunes were originally 
appointed by the imperator : after the year b.c. 362, they were 
elected, at least in part, by the people. Liv. vii. 5. 

5. Facile notus] " Easily made known." 

6. Declaratur] Scil. tribunus mil. The election made by 
ballot was announced by word of mouth. So Virg. Aen. v. 
245, Victorem praeconis voce Cloanthum declarat. 

7. Ab eo magistrate] i.e. post eum magistratum gestum. 

8. In potestatibus] " Civil magistracies," opposed to im- 
pend, military "commands." Cic. de leg. Agrar. ii. 7, omnes 
potestates, imperia, curationes ab universo pop. Eom. proficisci 
convenit. 

9. Ad id locorum] " Up to that time," i.e. the time when 
the augurs advised him to indulge his utmost ambition. Comp. 
postea (post ea) loci, interea (inter ea) loci: locus signifying 
state, circumstances ; and hence the time of such and such cir- 
cumstances. 

10. Petere] scil. consulatum. So c. 64, Marius ab Metellc 
petendi gratia missionem rogat. Liv. xxxv. 10, multi et po- 
tentes petebant patricii plebeiique. Kritz cites in illustratior 
of the usage, Cic. de leg. Agr. ii. 1, me per longo intervallc 
prope memoriae temporumque nostrorum primum hominen 
novum consulem fecistis, et eum locum, quern nobilitas praesi 
diis firmatum, atque omni ratione obvallatum tenebat, me duc< 
rescidistis, virtutique in posterum patere voluistis. 

11. Pollutus] " Vile, unworthy." 



CHAPTEE LXIV. 

1. Eodem...ciuo cupido...hortabatur] i. q. ad quod, tfc 
same point "to which." Comp. Horat. Sat. i. 1. 73, 

Nescio quo valeat nummus, quem praebeat usum. 

2. Superafoant] i. q. abunde erant, " although he had 
large share of good qualities." So Catil. 20. 



NOTES. 149 

3. Tamprava] "So monstrous:" pravus is crooked, de- 
formed, as opposed to rectus, straight. 

4. Super fortunam] "Beyond his condition." Comp. 
Prop. iii. 7. 2, infra fortunam qui cupis esse tuam. 

5. Caveret id petere] This verb is joined with ne, Jugur. 
62 : with the conjunct. Gatil. 58. 

6. Contubernio patris] In attendance upon his father, as 
one of the young men who performed their first campaign in 
the immediate service of the imperator, and were called his con- 
tubernales, as though they dwelt in the same tent, tdberna, with 
him. Compare, for the construction, Suet. Jul. 11, stipendia 
prima in Asia fecit M. Thermi praetoris contubernio. 

7. Annos natus circiter viginti] The legal age of stand- 
ing for the consulship was 43 years : hence the sarcasm of Me- 
tellus implied that Marius should wait 23 years more. At this 
time, B.C. 109, Marius (born b.c 157) was 48 years of age. 

8. AmMtiosum] " Calculated to obtain popularity :" ap- 
plied to things as well as to persons. Tac. Hist. i. 12, ambi- 
tiosis rumoribus'; i. 83, ambitioso imperio. So in Juvenal, 
ambitiosa paupertas, " solicitous of favours." 

9. Criminose...magnifice... loqui] "Insinuating charges 
against Metellus, and talking bigly of himself with regard to 
the war." Kritz points to the distinction between loqui, " to 
speak" or " talk" generally, and dicere, " to make a speech." 

10. Quod homo inanis] " Because the man was vain." 

CHAPTER LXV. 

1. Secundum haeredem] This must be understood in the 
Boman sense : the person to whom the inheritance was to de- 
scend in the event of the death or refusal of the first legatee. 

2. Imminuta] "Weakened." Comp. Tac. Hist. ii. 93, 
corpus otio, animum libidinibus imminuebant. 

3. Uti sellam juxta poneret] " That he might have the 
honour of seating himself by the side of Metellus." 

4. Honorem, quod] Supply negaverat, " he refused him 
the honour inasmuch as." 

5. Anxium] "Mortified." 

6. Secunda oratione] "By language which followed up 
his own views," i. e. " a flattering speech." Ovid, Art. Am. i. 
584, neu dubites illi verba secunda loqui. 



150 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

7. Id adeo] " That this indeed." 

8. Equites Romanos] i.e. Eoman knights, principally 
tfiose who farmed the revenues in the provinces under the name 
of publicani. Many of the traders in the provinces were also 
of this enterprising class. 

9. Suffragatione] " Favour or recommendation ;" differing 
from suffragium, " vote." 

10. Mamiliam] See above, c. 40. 

11. Extollefoat] "Was elevating to honours." 



CHAPTER LXVI. 

1. Affectare] " To conciliate," " to make one's own by 
favour and interest." Comp. Veil. ii. 39, Gallias saepe et 
affectavimus et amisimus. So above, c. 64, honor quern affec- 
tabat. 

2. Amiserat] "Had neglected and let go." So amittere 
occasionem. Comp. the passage of Velleius in last note. 

3. Vagenses, quo] " The people of Vaga, at which place," 
quo (loco) for quibus. Comp. Liv. xxi. 27, urbem Arcuam quo 
Hasdrubal frumenta convexerat. 

After Vagenses... fatigati...alienati, the construction is 
changed, and principes becomes the subject to the pred. conju- 
rant. 

4. Neque antea voluntate alienati] "And who before had 
not abandoned him of their own accord." 

5. Discordiosum] "Full of contention:" the termination 
in osus is emphatic. A. Gellius, iv. 9, cites the learned Nigidius 
Figulus: hoc inquit, inclinamentum semper hujuscemodi ver- 
borum, ut vinosus, mulierosus, religiosus, nummosus, signat 
copiam quandam immodicam rei super qua dicitur. 

6. Constituunt] " Make an appointment :" so constituere 
cum aliquo, or alicui. Terent. Hec. i. 2. 121, nam constitui 
cum quodam hospite me ilium esse conventurum. Juvenal, iii. 
12, Hie ubi nocturnae Numa constituebat amicae. 

7. ludum et lasciviam] "Sports and recreations:" lasci- 
via from laxus signifies relaxation of mind or body. 

8. Tumultus ipse] i.e. per se> "disturbance for its own 
sake." 



NOTES. 151 

CHAPTEE LXVIL 

1. Ad arcem...praesidium] The verb " erat" or " stabat" 
omitted emphasis gratia. Comp. Ovid, Trist. ii. 296 : 

Stat Venus TJltori juncta, vir ante fores. 

2. Pro tectis] " From the very edge of the roof." 

3. Anceps malum] "The double danger," from the wo- 
men and children, as well as from the men. 

4. Nisi...videtur] "Except that (i.e. I only know that) he 
seems, etc." 

5. Intestabilis] "Accursed," properly, one who for his 
crimes is forbidden by law to make or witness a will. Ulpian, 
Dig. xxviii. i. 18, si quis ob carmen famosum damnetur, sena- 
tus consulto expressum est, ut intestabilis sit, ergo nee testa- 
mentum facere poterit, nee ad testamentum adhiberi poterit. 

CHAPTER LXVin. 

1. Paullisper...abit] "Withdraws for a short time in 
vexation." 

2. Ira et aegritudo permixta] "When his vexation 
began to give place to resentment." Eor the construction see 
above on c. 52. 

3. Ultum ire] Comp. Catil. 36, perditum irent. 

4. Fessos ..et jam abnuentes] Comp. Lucan, viii. 3, Cor- 
nipedem exhaustum cursu stimulisque negantem. 

5. Non amplius mille passuum] Supply spatio, or inter- 
vallo. In some writers, however, mille is used as a substantive, 
as Nepos, Milt. 5, ea civitas mille misit militum. Liv. xxiii. 44, 
mille passuum erant inter urbem castraque. xxi. 61, trans- 
gressus Iberum cum octo millibus peditum, mille equitum. 

6. Ostentat] "Shews from a distance, offers or promises." 

7. In primo late] "In the van in loose order," opposed 
to arctissime : so as to cover much ground and be conspicuous. 
Late, a conjecture for latere, the common reading, has been 
confirmed by some MSS. 

CHAPTEE LXIX. 

1. Rursum or rursus] " On the contrary," properly, 
" turning back in an opposite direction," 



152 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

2. Amplius... posse] More usually, plus posse. But comp. 
Jugur. Ill, quoniam armis amplius valuissent. 

3. Ex perfidia] " Since the day of their treachery." For 
this sense of ex, see above, c. 36. 

4. Opulens] Sallust uses the common form, opulentus, in 
Gatil. 53, Jugur. 10, 75, and elsewhere; but opulenter, Jugur. 
85. So violens in Horat. Carm. iii. 30, Dicar qua violens ob- 
strepit Aufidus. 

5. Poenae...aut praedae fuit] "Was subjected to pun- 
ishment, i.e. massacre, or plunder." Poenae esse could hardly 
be admissible by itself, but the meaning is understood from 
praedae esse. 

6. Capite poenas solvit] "Is executed." 

7. Nam is civis ex Latio erat] "For he was a citizen of the 
Latin rank or order ;" i. e. only had the Latin franchise. By 
the lex Poreia a genuine Boman citizen might not be beaten 
with rods. This exemption had been extended to the Latins 
by a lex of M. Livius Drusus, a.u. 632, Plut. G. Gracch. 9, but 
seems to have been disregarded. The story of Turpilius is 
told somewhat differently by Plutarch, Mar. 8. According to 
this writer the charge against him was false, and got up by 
Marius, who instigated Metellus to put him to death to gratify 
his own malice against the imperator, whose retainer Turpilius 
had been. 



CHAPTEB LXX. 

1. Suspiciens] i.q. suspectans, "suspecting." The word, 
it is said, is not found elsewhere in this sense, except in the 
pass. part. ; but this sense is more easily attributed to it here 
because suspectus immediately precedes. 

2. Omnia tentando] This is to be distinguished from 
omnia tentans "in the course of trying everything," and from 
omnibus tentatis, " after everything had been tried." It im- 
plies that what follows, socium sibi adjungit N. t was a result 
of his trying various schemes. 

3. Majoribus adstricto] scil. rebus. " Occupied by more 
important affairs." 

4. Quae superaverant] i. q. restiterant, superfuerant, 
"remained over;" or "undone." Comp. A. Gell, i. 22, on the 
ancient use of this word. Virgil: captae superavimus urbi. 



NOTES. 153 

CHAPTEE LXXI. 
1. Aegrum animum] "A mind ill at ease, vexed and ha- 



2. Neque epistolam...et rem omnem] "Neither... and," 
equivalent to "not... but." Lucan, i. 134: 

Nee reparare novas vires, multumque priori 
Credere fortunae. 

Jugur. 85, ut neque vos capiamini, et illi frustra sint. 

3. Super tali scelere] i. q. de ; rare in prose writers of the 
golden age: never in Caesar, twice only in Cicero, in his letters, 
once in Sallust, once in Nepos. Dietsch, in loc. But comp. 
Virgil. Aen. i. 750 : 

Multa super Priamo rogitans, super Hectore multa. 

CHAPTEE LXXII. 

1. Aliter, etc.] i.e. placide. 

2. Iram oppresserat] "He had suppressed his anger at 
the slaughter," &c. Comp. Cic. Tusc. ii. 14, dolorem opprimi 
dico patientia. 

3 . Circumspectare] * ' He examined anxiously and timidly. ' ' 
Comp. Tac. Ann. iv. 69, Hist. iv. 8, animus novo principatu 
suspensus et vultus quoque et sermones omnium circumspec- 
tans. Cic. in Pison. 41, circumspectantem omnia, quicquid 
increpuisset pertimescentem vidi. 

4. Arreptis armis] Cortius in loc. explains ; quasi ades- 
sent qui vim pararent. 

CHAPTEE LXXIII. 

1. Indicio patefacto] An incorrect expression for insi- 
diis per indices patefactis ; "to disclose " is properly indicium 
facere, not patefacere. 

2. Ad integrum foellum] "Afresh war," i.e. a war ex- 
hausted or finished in no particular, in no quarter. Comp. 
Curt. ix. 4, integrum bellum cum ferocissimis Indiae gentibus 
superesse cognoverant. 

3. Fatigantem de profectione] "Importuning him for 
leave of absence." 

4. Moderata sunt] "As regarded either, party views in- 
fluenced the people more than the good or evil qualities of the 
men themselves;" i.e. the merits of Marius or demerits of Me- 



154 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

tellus. Sua for eorum; as Gatil. 21, cupiditatis suae. 58, 
domi suae. Jugur. 9, habes virum dignum te atque avo suo. 
Bona and mala used for virtues and vices, as Jugur. 85, 108, 
ob ingenii multa bona. 

5. Capitis arcessere] "Accused of a capital crime." This 
is said hyperbolically of the vehement denunciations of the 
tribunes. 

6. In majus celefcrare] Imitated perhaps from Thucyd. 
i. 21, &$ iroLTjTal vfivrjKao-c irepl avrcav, eiri rd fiei^ov Ko<Tfxovvres t 
and repeated by Tacitus, Ann. xiii. 8, omnia in majus celebrata 
sunt. See also xv. 30. Liv. xxviii. 31, in majus accipere. 

7. Res fidesque] There is a familiar opposition in these 
words thus conjoined, as we say, "cash and credit." Comp. 
Plaut. Trucul. i. 1. 24, extemplo et ipsus periit et res et fides. 
38, quum rem fidemque nosque nosmet perdimus. 

8. In manibus] "In their daily labour." Comp. Gatil. 
37, in manuum mercede. 

9. Post multas tempestates] "After many recurring 
years:" tempestates implies the seasons of election duly recur- 
ring. 

10. Ea res frustra fuit] Comp. Jugur. 7 and note 9. 
Frustra derived from fraus, which signifies properly "disap- 
pointment in events or things," dolus "deceit in persons." 
Hor. Od. ii. 19. 19, coerces... Bistonidum sine fraude crines, 
"without hurt or harm." "The decree of the senate was 
quashed." The appointment of the provinces belonged of right 
to the people, but the senate generally recommended, and gra- 
dually usurped the prerogative in ordinary cases. Sometimes, 
however, the people insisted upon exercising their privilege, and 
the senate was forced to give way. 

CHAPTEB LXXIV. 

1. Varius incertusque] " Changeable and uncertain as to 
his plans." 

2. In dies mutare] i.q. in singulos dies, from day to day. 
So in horas. Hor. Od. ii. 13. 13 : 

Q,uod quisque vitet nunquam homini satis 
Cautum est in horas. 

3. Quocumque intenderat] Scil.ammwm, "whatever course 
he had resolved on." The plusq. perf. shews that intendere im- 
plies a moral act, a plan or intention, which must precede the 
physical movement. If Sallust had meant to say, "in whatever 
direction he moved," he must have used the imperf. 



NOTES. 155 

4. Aliquanto numero] "A good many," opposed to pau~ 
corum. 

5. Ferme] A more ancient form than fere. Varro, De 
Ling. Lat. vii. 5. 

6. Tuta sunt] "Protected:" the partic. of tuor or tueor. 
But some MSS. read here tutata, the form which has been re- 
tained in Jugur. 52 ; Liv. x. 37 ; Plin. H. N. vii. procem. ; and 
which should probably be read here. 



CHAPTEE LXXV. 

1. Thala] Supposed by Mannert to be the Telepte of the 
Itinerarium Antonini, a place on the northern edge of the de- 
sert which lies between Numidia and the lesser Syrtis and lacus 
Tritonis. Shaw identifies it with the modern Ferreanah. 

2. Multus pueritiae cultus] " Great provision for bring- 
ing up his children;" i.e. the women, slaves, attendants upon 
them, &c. 

3. Domiti pecoris] "Cattle broken to service." Comp. 
Cic. de Nat. Dear. ii. 60, enicimus domitu nostro quadrupedum 
vectiones. 

4. Eoque] Adverbial. Comp. c. 47, huc.imposuit. 

5. UM praesto fuerint] This or fuerit is the reading of 
the MSS. Kritz, contrary to his usual deference to the MSS., 
conjectures forent, as the more appropriate tense. But fuerint 
implies that the people " shall be already there," " shall have 
already arrived," when Metellus comes up. 

6. Ad id loci ventum, quo Numidis praeceperat] i. q. eo 

ventum quo Numidis convenire praeceperat. 

7. Omcia intenderant] "Had done their part zealously;" 
"had stretched their aid to the utmost." Comp. Tacit. Hist. 
i. 24, largitionem Otho praemiis intendebat. 

8. Religione] "From a superstitious feeling," i.e. be- 
lieving the rain to be sent them by the gift of the gods. 

9. Locorum asperitate] "The wildness of the country 
that lay between." Comp. Jugur. 89, where the same phrase is 
explained: nam praeter oppido propinqua alia omnia vasta, 
inculta, egentia aquae, infesta serpentibus. 



156 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

CHAPTER LXXVI. 

1. Nihil infectum] "Nothing impossible:" the perf. 
part. pass, becomes equivalent to the adject, in -bills. So in- 
victus (quasi invincibilis), incorruptus, inaccessus, &c. This 
usage seems to prevail in regard to words which have no adjec- 
tival form in -bills. 

2. Ceteris imperitantem] "Which controls all others." 

3. Locis ex copia maxime idoneis] "At spots the most 
suitable of all that offered." 

4. Vineas agere] See Jugur. 37, not. 5. 

5. Administros] The word is specially used of military 
engineers and "pioneers." Caes. Bell. Gall. vii. 81, quae ad 
oppugnationem pertinent administrare. 

6. Nihil reliquum fieri] " Nothing was left undone." 

7. Multo ante labore...fatigati] "Fatigued with much 
previous toil," i.e. qui antea fuit. Comp. Yirg. Aen. i. 198, 
neque enim ignari sumus ante malorum. Catull. iv. 11, Ubi 
ille post phaselus (i.e. qui postea fuit) antea fuit Comata sylva. 
Comp. also Plaut. Amphitr. ii. 2. 138, Tu intus pateram (i.e. 
quae intus est) proferto foras. Hor, Od. iv. 6. 3, Trojae prope 
victor, i.e. qui prope fuit. Lucan, vi. 363, et tuus Oeneu Paene 
gener: i.e. qui paene fuit. 

8. Corrupta] "Destroyed:" as immediately below, ignl 
corrumpunt. 

9. Onerati] "Laden." Comp. Curt. iv. 4, oneravere se 
vino. Justin, i. 8; Suet. Tib. 61. Comp. Hor. Sat. ii. 2. 78, 
corpus onustum Hesternis vitiis. 

CHAPTER LXXVII. 

1. Suam salutem, illorum socios] Asyndeton : " their own 
safety and the allies of Rome;" i.e. the Leptitans would risk 
the safety of their state, and the Romans the advantages of 
their alliance. 

2. Gnave] "Sedulously." The MSS. mostly read nave, 
some navi. I write gnave for the sake of clearness. 

CHAPTER LXXVIII. 

1. Inter duas Syrtes] The greater and the lesser Syrtis, 
mod. the gulf of Sidra, and the gulf of Khabs : deep bays in 
the northern coast of Africa, in which the tide has some influ- 



NOTES. 157 

ence. They are obstructed with shifting sand-banks, accumu- 
lated by the currents of the outer sea, some of which are unco- 
vered at low water. Sallust derives their name, in accordance 
with the ideas of the Greek geographers, from the verb vvpeiv, 
"to drag," from the stones, &c. dragged along the bottom by 
the force of the waves. But the words Syrtes ab tractu nominatae 
found in most MSS. seem to be a gloss taken from Isidorus 
the grammarian, who says, referring to this passage, nomen are 
inditum, Syrtes Sallustius a tractu vocari dicit. Sallust de- 
scribes the Syrtes as having deep water near the land, but 
shallow from the sand-banks farther out, like the Downs and 
the Yarmouth Roads. Lucan's description may give an idea of 
what the ancients thought of them, ix. 303 : 

Syrtes vel primam mundo Natura figuram 
Cum daret, in dubio pelagi terraeque reliquit: 
(Nam neque subsedit penitus, quo stagna profundi 
Acciperet, nee se subduxit ab aequore tellus, 
Ambigua sed lege loci jacet invia sedes, 
Aequora fracta vadis, abruptaque terra profundo, 
Et post multa sonant projecti littora fluctus: 
Sic male deseruit nullosque exegit in usus 
Hanc partem Natura sui:) vel plenior alto 
Olim Syrtis erat pelago, penitusque natabat: 
Sed rapidus Titan ponto sua lumina pascens 
Aequora subduxit zonae vicina perustae, 
Et nunc pontus adhuc Phoebo siccante repugnat. 
Mox ubi damnosum radios admoverit aevum 
Tellus Syrtis erit: nam jam brevis unda superne 
Innatat, et late periturum deficit aequor. 

2. In extrema Africa] " At the eastern extremity, near to 
the frontiers of Egypt." 

3. Quorum proxima...] "The water near the shore is 
very deep, the rest of the bay, is as it may be, some places deep, 
others shallow, according to tide and wind:" i. q. alta alia, 
alia...vadosa. Comp. for this suppression of alius, Tac. Ann., 
i. 63, ut opus (alii) et alii praelium inciperent. 

4. Mare magnum] " Stormy sea." Comp. Lucret. ii. 1, 
Suave mari magno, turbantibus aequora ventis. Catull. xxv. 
12, velut minuta magno Deprensa navis in mari, vesaniente 
vento. 

CHAPTER LXXIX. 

1. Per Leptitanorum negotia] " From our commerce with 
the people of Leptis." Per, like the G-r. 6ccl, has sometimes the 
sense of "from, for, on account of." Comp. Jugur. 85, qui per 
ambitionem probos sese simulavere. 99, ne signa quidem, 
uti per vigilias canere. Fragm. Hist. Inc. 65, multa primo per 
ignobilitatem, deinde per invidiam scriptorum parum celebrata 
sunt. 



158 SALLUSTII JUQURTHA. 

2. Pleraeque Africae] The reading of all the MSS. It 
is to be remarked, however, that the grammarian Arusianus 
Messus cites pleraque Africa in illustration of the phrase impe- 
rat hac regione. See Corp. Gramm. i. 237, ed. Lindemann. 

3. Una specie] "Of uniform appearance;" i.e. all sand 
without intermission. 

4. Hafouit] "Kept." Comp. Liv. x. 2, semper eos in 
armis accolae Galli habebant. Jugur. 94, toto die intentos 
bello Numidas habuerat. 

5. Nuda gignentium] " Devoid of vegetable life." Comp. 
Jugur. 93, of plants, quo cuncta gignentium natura fert. It is 
opposed to animal life in Lactant. de Ira Dei, i. 13, multa esse 
in gignentibus et in numero animalium. 

6. Coortus] Of winds and tempests, and hence transl. of 
seditions, Virg. Aen. i. 148. Of the sand-storms in Libya see 
the wild description in Lucan, ix. 458 : 

Regna videt pauper Nasamon errantia vento, &c. 

7. Ob rem corruptam] "For the detriment done to their 
country's interest." 

8. Aliam condicionem, etc.] " Some other means of arriv- 
ing- at an agreement, as long as it should be a fair one." 

9. Carthaginiensibus] Carthaginiensium, the MSS. with 
few exceptions: but such a construction seems inadmissible. 

10. Ibi] Scil. in illis Jinibus quos pop. suo peterent : by 
attraction. 

11. Aras consecravere] For the Philaenon arae, see above, 
c. 19. Such arae were not raised as sacrificial altars, but were 
pillars erected for monuments. Thus Alexander the Great 
erected twelve altars at the furthest limit of his advance into 
India. Curt. ix. 3, erigi duodecim aras ex quadrato saxo, mo- 
numentum expeditionis suae, jussit. Cic. Philipp. xiv. 13, 
quae sit ad memoriam aeternitatis ara virtutis. 

CHAPTEE LXXX. 

1. Ordines habere] "To keep their ranks," i.q. servare, 

observare; agnoscere. 

2. Filia Bocchi] Jugurtha had married the daughter of 
Bocchus. Comp. Flor. iii. 1. 17, fraudulentissimus regum 
fraude soceri sui in insidias deductus est. So also Plutarch, 
vit. Sull. 3; Mar. 10. Nevertheless, some of the best MSS. 
read Boccho, reversing the affinity. 



NOTES. 159 

3. ea necessitudo] " That tie of family connexion." 

4. Sed reges eo amplius] " So much the more, inasmuch 
as they have greater means :" referring to pro opibus quisque. 

5. Pro socia obtinet] " Takes the place of a partner in 
the throne." 

CHAPTER LXXXI. 

1. Placitum] "Acceptable, agreed upon." This participle 
is mostly poetical. Comp. Yirg. Aen. iv. 38, placitone etiam 
pugnabis amori ? But also used by Tacitus, Ann. ii. 66, nee 
tamen Caesar placitas semel artes mutavit. The neuter, placi- 
tum, as a substantive, " a decree," is found in the elder Pliny. 

2. Profunda avaritia] Comp. Cic. in Pison. 21, profundae 
libidines. Senec. Epist. 89, profunda et insatiabilis gula. 

3. Aliis talibus] We have already had alia talia in c. 44, 
and again in 64, 72, in this place, and once more in c. 35. 
Comp. Ovid, Metam. xiii. 228: 

Talibus atque aliis in quae dolor ipse disertum fecerat. 

4. Operae pretium] Scil. sibi, " worth his while." Some- 
times operae stands alone, sometimes pretium. 

5. Bocchi pacem imminuere] " To disturb the peace 
which Bocchus had hitherto kept with Rome:" imminuere, i.q. 
dissolvere. 



CHAPTER LXXXII. 

1. Cognitis Mauris] "After reconnoitring the Moors :" 
i.e. "when he should have ascertained what kind of enemy the 
Moors would prove, what was their manner of fighting, &c." 

2. Ex commodo pugnam facere] " To engage at a favour- 
able opportunity." 

3. Molliter pati] "In an unmanly way." Caes. Bell. 
Gall. iii. 19, Gallorum animus mollis est ad calamitates per- 
ferendas. 

4. In superbiam vertebant] Properly, "transferred or 
rendered into pride," i.e. attributed to pride, instead of the. 
real feeling. 



160 SALLUSTII JUGUBTHA. 

CHAPTEE LXXXIII. 

1. Sumi facile] Comp. Tacit. Hist. iv. 69, sumi bellum 
etiam ab ignavis, -strenuissimi cujusque periculo geri. 

2. Conventura] "Would be settled amicably." Things 
are said convenire when both parties agree about them: so, 
pax convenit. Liv. xxiv. 27, Marcellus posse rem convenire 

ratus. 

3. Contra] " In reply to." 

4. Bellum intactum train] "The war was protracted, 
and nothing done." Bellum trahi is a common phrase; but 
intactum is added per oxymorum; being a contradiction in 
sense for the sake of emphasis. " The war was protracted, 
or indeed not even commenced." 



CHAPTEE LXXXIV. 

1. Cupientissima plebe] i. q. optime cupiente, " with the 
warmest approbation of the commonalty." 

2. Ei provinciam Numid. populus jussit] i.e. decrevit. 
Jubere, with the accus. of the object, expresses a decree of the 
people in the comitia. Cic. pro Balb. 17, responderem legem 
populum Eom. jussisse. Liv. xxi. 17, quod bellum populus 
Eom. jussisset. The person in whose interest the decree is 
made is in the dative. 

3. Populus] "The Eoman people," comprehending all 
classes, and opposed to plebs, "the commonalty." Populus, 
according to Niebuhr, is properly the patrician class, opposed 
to the plebeian; but this correct usage was neglected by the 
best authors, and perhaps they were not fully aware of it. 

4. Multus...instare] Comp. the Greek phrase in Thuc. 
iv. 22, KXtwv 8e ivravOa 3t] iroXbs evticeiTO. 

5. Illis dolentia] i.e. quae illi dolerent, or dolorem offer- 
rent, " causing pain." Comp. Ovid, Met. iv. 246, nil illo fertur 
...vidisse dolentius. So vulnus dolet, i.e. dolorem facit. 

6. Plerosque militiae, paucos fama cognitos] " Most of 
them known to him in actual service, a few only by report : " 
militiae is the genitive of place, like domi, and is equivalent to 
foris, as those who serve in the army serve abroad. The dou- 
ble construction with the same verb is found elsewhere in Sal 

. lust : as Catil. 33, plerique patriae sed omnes fama atque for- 
tunis expertes. Comp. Jugur. 74. 



NOTES. 161 

7. Ambiendo] " Soliciting man by man, as in a canvass." 

8. Emeritis stipendiis] " Those who had completed their 
term of service:" properly, "who had earned all their annual 
stipends for military service." At this period the legitimate 
term of service was twenty years for the foot and ten for the 
horse. The Eoman legionary first received pay a.tj. 347, ac- 
cording to Livy, iv. 59, additum deinde ut stipendium miles de 
publico acciperet, quum ante id tempus de suo quisque func- 
tus eo munere esset. Niebuhr (Hist. Rom. ii. 438, Engl. Tr.) 
questions this statement, believing that pay was not given till 
a later period. 

9. Plebi militia volenti] This dat. volenti is a Graecism. 
Comp. Aesch. Prom. V. 23, ao-fJL&Cf} 84 <roi 77 iroaaXelfuav vb% ctaro- 
KpvxpeL 0dos, and among prose writers Thuc. ii. 3; vii. 35, and 
other authors. It is frequently imitated in Latin, e.g. Liv. xxi. 
50 ; Tac. Ann. i. 59 ; Hist. iii. 43 ; Agric. 18. See also above, 
Jugur. 4, uti militibus labor volentibus esset. 

10. Belli usum] i.e. ea quae hello usui sunt, " the requi- 
sites of war," i.e. ** men." Comp. Cic. in Verr. 11. iv. 5, ilium 
usum provinciae supplere. 



CHAPTEE LXXXV. 

1. Scio ego] The pronoun is expressed for emphasis. " I 
for my part." Comp. below, equidem ego. 

2. Mini contra ea videtur] "To me the opposite course to 
this seems the best." 

3. Administrari . . . debere] Governed by videtur understood 
from the preceding clause. 

4. Cum maximo beneficio vestro] " In conjunction with the 
very great favour, i.e. the consulate, &c. which you have con- 
ferred upon me." Comp. below, in max. vestro beneficio. 

5. Eos] There is peculiar force in the pronoun: "such 
men as you would not wish to offend." 

6. Opinione...asperius est] " Is more difficult than people 
think." 

7. Nam alia infirma sunt] " For my other supports are 
feeble:" supply tutamina mea. 

8. Procedunt] i. q. bene cedunt, " succeed." Comp. Cic. de 
Orat. i. 27, nonnunquam summis oratoribus non satis ex sen- 
tentia eventum dieendi procedere. 

JUG. 11 



162 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

9. Illi frustra sint] " They may be disappointed." Comp. 
above, c. 7, 14, and the phrase which follows, ita...fui. 

10. Consueta habeam] "Am constantly accustomed to:" 
the continuative force of habeo. 

11. In potestatibus] " In the enjoyment of magistracies." 

12. Temperare] Scil. sibi. 

13. Bene facere] Scil. reipublicae, i.e. bene mereri de re- 
publ., "the honourable discharge of my duties to the state has 
become natural to me through habit." 

14. Ex illo globo nobilitatis] " Of that band of nobles:" 
globus, a military term, implying a small number in dense 
array, used here invidiously of the nobility, as a handful of 
conspirators. 

15. Veteris prosapiae] "Of ancient lineage:" prosapia, 
and prosapies, from supo (hence dissipo) to scatter, spread : 
figurative from the spreading branches of a tree. The word 
was antique in Cicero's time (ut utamur veteri verbo : Cic. 
Timae. 11. (fragm. Orell.) and obsolete in that of Quintilian 
(Inst. Orat. i. 6). 

16. Nullius stipendii] "Who have gained no pay," i.e. 
" have seen no service." 

17. Sui] Added emphasis gratia: "a duty which should 
be his own, and no one's else." 

18. Imperare jussistis] Some MSS. read imperatorem, 
which is more emphatic, and may be compared with Liv. i. 17, 
quern populus regem jussisset. i. 22 ; iii. 30. 

19. Homines praeposteri] Praep. in its proper sense, 
from prae and post, "who put the cart before the horse:" ho- 
mines, contemptuously. 

20. Gerere quam fieri, etc.] Gerere magistratum, "the 
discharge of magistracy," succeeds in point of time to fieri, i.e. 
creari magist., " being appointed a magistrate :" whereas shew- 
ing oneself fit for the appointment ought properly to precede 
the being appointed. 

21. Partem vidi, alia egomet gessi] Comp. Virg. Aen. ii. 
5, quaeque ipse miserrima vidi, Et quorum pars magna fui. 
The adv. partim might stand equally well with the genitive, 
but there is no sufficient authority for it in this place. 

22. Illi Uteris] Comp. Cic. pro Font. 15. C. Marius, P. 
Didius, Q. Catulus...non Uteris homines ad rei militaris scien- 
tiam, sed rebus gestis ac victoriis eruditi. 



NOTES. 163 

23. Vos existimate] Emphatic: "judge ye for your- 
selves." 

24. Fortissimum ctuemque generosiss.] Comp. Juvenal, 
viii. 20, nobilitas sola est atque unica virtus. 

25. Vestros honores] " The honours you have to bestow." 

26. Ita nos petunt] " So seek the same," i.e. your ho- 
nours. 

27. Falsi sunt] " Are deceived." 

28. Posteris lumen] Many MSS. read quasi lumen; and 
this particle is frequently inserted, to soften the harshness of 
a metaphor : as Cic. de Off. ii. 9, honestum decorumque quasi 
perlucet ex iis quas commemoravi virtutibus. 

29. In conscientiam duceret] "Construe into a consci- 
ousness of guilt." Comp. above, ch. 82, in superbiam vertebant. 
92, in virtutem trahebantur. 

30. Ex animi mei sententia] The pronoun, omitted in 
many MSS., seems to be required in solemn asseverations of 
this kind. Comp. Cic. de Off. iii. 29, quod ex animi tui senten- 
tia jnraris, sicut verbis concipitur more nostro, id non facere 
perjurium est. And A. Gell. iv. 20, verba ita erant concepta ut 
tu ex animi tui sententia uxorem habes. 

31. Fidei causa] Scil. dandae, " in confirmation of what I 

say." 

32. Hastas, vexillum, phaleras] The hasta was presented 
to deserving soldiers (Festus in voc), and was called pura, as 
having no iron head. The vexillum was a streamer at the end 
of a spear: phalerae, trappings for horses: the alia dona mili- 
taria were torques and catellae, chains, armillae, bracelets, fibu- 
lae, clasps, coronae, crowns or chaplets of various kinds. Most 
of these are enumerated among the trophies of Siccius Denta- 
tus, by A. Gellius, ii. 11. Comp. Juvenal, xvi. ult., laeti pha- 
leris onmes et torquibus omnes. 

33. Neque literas Graecas didici] Plutarch, who has 
made much use of this oration in describing the character of 
Marius, repeats that he despised the manners and literature of 
the Greeks on the account here mentioned, that they did not 
save that people from conquest by the Komans, and imputes 
to this morose pride much of the barbarity of his actions, wa- 
irep oh> UevoKparei rip (pi\ocr6<pu) (TKvOpuiroTe'pu) doicovvTi to y6os 
elvai, ttoWclkls eiudei \iyetv 6 UXarcav c3 ncucapte EevoKpares dve 
rats %d/Hcriz>' ourws et tis '^ireiae M.apiov dveiv reus 'EW^i/ccus 

11—2 



164 SALLUST11 JUGURTHA. 

Moutrcus Kcd xapio-tv, qvk av etJirptzTrearaTcus <TTpaT7}yiaLS Kal ttoXl- 
relais afj,op<poTOLT7)v eiredqice KopuvLda, inrb 6v/jlov Kal (piXapxias 
awpou, Kal irXeove^Loov aTrapyyoprjTGJi', d$ (b/uoTarov Kal aypnararov 
yrjpas e^oKeiXas. Plut. in Mar. 2. The Pseudo-Sallust, Ep. ad 
Caes. de Ordin. Bepubl. has the same idea: Quippe qui domi 
libertatem suam per inertiam amiserint, censesne eorum prae- 
ceptis imperium haberi posse ? 

34. Civile] • "Befitting a citizen," moderate and humane; 
the condescension of superiors to their inferiors. Comp. Tac. 
Ann. i. 72, Non tamen ideo faciebat fidem civilis animi. Lucan, 
vii. 267: 

Plebeiaque toga modicum componere civem. 

35. Dominum non imperatorem] Martial says of the em- 
peror Trajan : Hie non est dominus sed imperator, Sed justis- 
simus omnium senator. Marking the essential distinction of 
the legitimate authority of the commander of an army and the 
self-will of the master of a family of slaves. 

36. Repetere] Used of exacting payment of a debt. 
Jugur. 96, Sulla aes mutuum ab nullo repetere. Cic. Tusc. i. 39 ; 
ad Div. xi. 28, etc. 

37. Histrionem] "A buffoon or dancer for the amuse- 
ment of guests at table." Livy derives the word from the Tus- 
can Ulster, vii. 2, Quia hister Tusco verbo ludio vocabatur, 
nomen histrionibus inditum. For the introduction of this 
species of luxury, and of artists in cookery, &c. see Livy, xxxix. 
6. Comp. Macrob. Saturn, ii. 13. 

38. Hafoeo] i.e. in this place, possideo. The villicits, or 
bailiff, was a praedial slave of rough manners and without edu- 
cation. 

39. Munditias] "Elegancies." Comp. Liv. xxxiv. 7, 
munditiae et ornatus et cultus, haec foeminarum insignia sunt : 
hunc mundum muliebrem appellarunt majores nostri. 

40. Sudorem, pulverem] The Eomans living in a warm 
climate generally describe active endurance as the power of 
bearing heat and dust, while we northerns more commonly 
speak of endurance of cold. On the other hand, we call a lazy 
drone a chimney-corner fellow; the Eomans described him as 
umbratilis, one who sought the shade for coolness and repose. 

41. Militaris aetas] "Age for military service," i.e. from 
17 to 46. 

42. Juxta geram] " I will ever keep my own interests and 
yours closely conjoined." 



NOTES. 165 

43. Decebat] The imperf. indie, follows the subjunc. 
implying the certainty of the event which depends upon the 
antecedent condition. "Even though all these things were 
doubtful or distant, yet undoubtedly it is always fitting that 
good men should succour the commonwealth." Comp. Cic. 
pro leg. Manil. 17, quod si Komae Cn. Pompeius privatus esset 
hoc tempore, tamen ad tantum bellum is erat diligendus atque 
mittendus. 

CHAPTER LXXXYI. 

1. Non more majorum, neque ex classibus] Two parti- 
culars are here mentioned in which Marius forsook the ancient 
institution: instead of convening the people in the Campus 
Martius, and calling them by their centuries for enlistment, he 
allowed them to offer themselves indiscriminately — uti cujus- 
que lubido erat — for service : and instead of selecting the sol- 
diers exclusively from the five superior classes, arranged accord- 
ing to their census, he enlisted most of his men from the sixth 
or lowest of all, the members of which, having no fortunes, 
were only polled, capite censi. This practice was continued in 
later times, and the Roman soldiers, instead of having a stake 
and interest in the institutions of the commonwealth, became 
for the most part needy men, who served only for pay and 
plunder. But the concentration of property in fewer hands, 
and the diminution of the class of small proprietors, ren- 
dered this course of proceeding imperative. Comp. Plutarch. 
Mar. c. 9. 

2. Inopia foonorum] " For want of good men," i.e. men 
of substance. 

3. Auctus] "Advanced," i.e. in power, fame, or honours. 

4. Et homini, etc.] A new clause, not dependent upon the 
preceding quod, but expressing the writer's own judgment on 
Marius' s motives. 

5. Neque sua curae] i. q. et sua non curae. 

6. Cum] Signifies "on condition of." So Cic. Tusc. i. 
49, multis videmus optabiles mortes fuisse cum gloria. 

CHAPTER LXXXYII. 

1. Praeda] " Objects for booty." 

2. Diversi] " In different directions." 

3. Futuros] For this pregnant combination of the adverb 
with the verb, compare Jugur. 7, frustra erat. 14, tutius essem: 
and other places noticed above. Laxius refers to their disci- 
pline, licentius to their behaviour. 



166 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

CHAPTEE LXXXVin. 

1. Metellus interea, etc.] For the honours paid to Me- 
tellus see c. 43, note 1. At a later period he was driven into 
exile by the influence of a tribune named Saturninus, and once 
more restored to his country, notwithstanding the opposition 
of Marius. 

2. Contra spem suam] " Contrary to his expectation." 

3. In itinere] " On their way." 

4. Armis exuerat] " Had stripped of his arms," i.e. had 
put to flight and compelled to cast away his arms. Comp. 
Liv. xxii. 21 ; Caes. B. G. hi. 6. 

5. Belli patrandi] " Such as would bring the war to a 
close." Comp. Liv. xxxix. 16, judicabant nihil aequae dissol- 
vendae religionis esse. 

6. Pro hostibus et adversus se] "Advantageous to the 
enemy and disadvantageous to himself." 

7. Solitus] Supply fuerit, implied in simulaverit. Comp. 
Jugur. 113, ceterum dolo an vere cunctatus parum comperimus; 
where supp. promiserit, from the preceding clause. 



CHAPTEE LXXXIX. 

1. In manus venturum] "Would engage." Tac. Hist. 
iv. 71, ut ventum in manus deturbati praeeipitantur. 

2. Magnum atque valens] " Large in size and abounding 
in resources." 

3. Capsa] A city lying between the Bagrada and the lacus 
Tritonis. Strabo calls it the treasury (ya{o(pv\dKioi>) of Ju- 
gurtha. 

4. Hercules Libys] The Libyan Hercules is the same as 
the Tyrian and the Phoenician, Herod, ii. 44: the legendary 
discoverer and conqueror of Africa in the Carthaginian mytho- 
logy. 

5. Immunes] " Free from contributions. " 

6. Una] Scil. aqua, "a single spring of water:" jugi, 
"unfailing." Jugis differs from perennis : the one is "un- 
failing," the other "ever-flowing," from per and amnis. Ovid, 
Fast. iii. 654, Amne perenne latens Anna Perenna vocor. Doe- 
derlein, Synon. ii. 13, 31, derives the word jugis from diu. 



NOTES. 167 

CHAPTEE XC. 

1. Pabulo...quam arvo student] " Use pasture more than 
arable land." 

2. Ad oppidum Laris] This is probably the old ace. plu. 
for Lares. The same place seems to be mentioned by St Au- 
gustine under the form Laribus. 

3. Praedabundum] " In the course of a predatory expe- 
dition." 

CHAPTEE XCI. 

1. Distribuerat...curabat] The plusq. perf. marks the 
idea in the mind of the writer, that the distribution had been 
already made, when the making of the skins into bags began : 
as if he had said, ex coriis pecorum, quae quotidie distribuerat, 
utres uti fierent curabat. 

2. Sexto die, quum, etc.] i. q. sexto die, ex quo, " the 
sixth day after arriving inclusive." Comp. Cic. ad Div. x. 23, 
collegam triduo, quum has dabam literas, exspectabam. xv. 
14, multi anni sunt quum ille in aere meo est. The same 
might be expressed by post sextum diem quam. 

3. Ubi dies coepit] "At break of day." Comp. Tac. Ann. 
iv. 25, simul coeptus dies. 

4. Res trepidae] "The confusion of their affairs," or 
"into which they were thrown." Comp. Yirg. Aen. i. 563, Ees 
dura et regni novitas, "the difficulty of my position." 

5. Non avaritia, neque scelere] "Neither from lust of 
plunder, nor from a wanton disregard of law and usage." 
Scelus is the breach of a positive law, human or divine. 

6. Coercitum] i.e. quod coerceri potest, "to be controlled." 
See on ch. 76, and comp. Tac. Ann. iv. 30, delatores genus 
hominum poenis quidem nunquam satis coercitum. 

CHAPTEE XCH. 

1. Trahebantur] This word signifying here an improper, 
illegitimate, application, refers properly to the latter clause, 
and only by zeugma to the former. 

4. Deorum nutu...portendi] "Eevealed to him by divine 
decree." The whole passage seems to be imitated by Q. Cur- 
tius, iii. jam primum nihil sine divina ope aggredi videbatur; 
nam cum esset praesto ubique fortuna, temeritas in gloriam 
cesserat. 



168 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

3. Non eadem asperitate...haud secus difficilem] "Not so 
perilous, but equally (not less, see on c. 20) difficult." Asper, 
fig. fierce, violent, destructive; in which sense it is often joined 
with bellum, fata, &g. 

4. Inter ceteram planitiem] i. q. in cetera planitie. Comp. 
c. 88, inter ingentes solitudines oppidum magnum. 

5. Administrare] Subaud. operi. 



CHAPTBE XCIII. 

1. Aversum proeliantibus] "On the opposite side to 
where they were fighting." 

2. Aninmrn vertit] " Seized his mind," or " struck him." 

3. Coaluerat] The prep, is merely intensive, as in Suet. 
Aug. 92, palmam in compluvium...transtulit, utque eoalesceret 
magno opere curavit. Ovid, Art. Am. ii. 649, Dum novus in 
viridi coalescit cortice ramus. And fig. Tac. Hist. i. 21, dum 
Galbae auctoritas fluxa, Pisonis nondum coaluisset: "had not 
yet grown to maturity." 

4. Castelli planitiem perscribit] Draws a plan of the 
fortification as it lay flat beneath him. By perscribit is gene- 
rally understood, " reconnoitres," " examines," i. q. perlustrat. 
But authority for such a sense is wanting, and there seems to 
be no difficulty in supposing that the man drew some rude 
plan. But the passage is probably corrupt: in castelli plani- 
tiem pervenit, is the reading adopted by Kritz, with the author- 
ity of a few MSS. 



CHAPTEB XCIY. 

1. Qui ascensuri erant] The reading of many MSS. 
seems preferable to the common reading qui centuriis prae- 
erant : it is not the four centurions only, but the whole body, 
nine in number, who are spoken of. 

2. Offensa] Comp. Liv. vii. 36, miles offenso scuto prae- 
buit sonitum. 

3. Dubia nisu] i.e. nisui. Comp. Propertius, iv. 4. 81, 
Mons erat adscensu dubius. 

4. Potissimus tentare] " He tried first of all." 

5. Digrediens] " Stepping aside," i.e. to leave room for 
the others to ascend. 



NOTES. • 169 

6. Signa canere] Understand cornicines as the subject. 

7. Vadere] " To march" or "stride." Lucan, ii. in fin. 
Vadis adhuc ingens populis comitantibus exul. 

CHAPTEE XCV. 

1. Quos] Eeferring to equites, understood in equitatus. 

2. Ex Latio] i.e. from the socii Latini nominis, such Ita- 
lian towns as had the Latin franchise. 

3. L. Sisenna] This historian, one of the Cornelian gens, 
and partial perhaps on that account to Sulla, wrote a history 
of the social war and the civil wars of Sulla and Marius. He 
was born about 118 B.C., and was praetor in 78, the year in 
which Sulla died. Cicero speaks of him, de Leg. i. 2, Brut. 76, 
and esteemed him superior as an historian to his predecessors. 
About 150 fragments of his great work are preserved, but very 
short and unconnected. 

4. Familia prope jam extincta] So Velleius, ii. 17, says 
of him ; L. Corn. Sulla natus familia nobili, sextus a Cornelio 
Eufino, qui bello Pyrrhi inter celeberrimos fuerat duces, quum 
familiae ejus claritudo intermissa esset, diu ita se gessit, ut 
nullam petendi consulatum cogitationem habere videretur. 
Sallust speaks of the familia of the Sullae, a branch of the 
Eufini. The Cornelii were a numerous and distinguished 
gens in early times, and were subdivided into several familiae, 
e.g. patrician: Arvina, Blasio, Cethegus, Cinna, Cossus, Dola- 
bella, Lentulus, Maluginensis, Mammula, Merenda, Merula, 
Eufinus, Scapula, Scipio, Sisenna, Sulla. Of these the Len- 
tuli and Scipio s had various agnomens, distinguishing indivi- 
duals. The plebeian Cornelii were Galli and Balbi. Sulla 
introduced a vast number of his own clients and dependents 
into the Cornelian gens, and under the empire it was un- 
doubtedly the most extensive of all the Eoman houses. 

5. Otio luxurioso esse] Sub coepit, i. q. erat, " debauched 
in his intervals of leisure." The gross debauchery imputed to 
Sulla (but we must remember how many enemies he had made) 
is painted in strong colours by Plutarch in his life. He was 
said to have died of a loathsome disease brought on, we may 
suppose, by intemperance. 

6. Nisi quod] Complete the sentence thus: nisi huic 
laudi repugnat quod. Comp. Tac. Ann. i. 33, ipsa Agrippina 
paulo commotior, nisi quod castitate...indomitum animum in 
bonum trahebat, i.e. quae res non poterat non damnosa, fieri 



170 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

nisi salubrem temperationem hoc attulit quod &c. xiv. 14, 
notos quoque equites operas arenae promittere subegit donis 
ingentibus (supply, qui propter turpem pecuniae cupidinem 
detestabiles videntur) nisi (scil. eo excusandi sunt) quod merces 
ab eo qui jubere potest vim necessitatis affert. Kritz. 

7. De uxore potuit honestius consuli] "His conjugal 
affairs might have been more decently managed." Plutarch 
mentions his marrying as many as five wives, which seems, 
notwithstanding the facility of divorce and laxity in such mat- 
ters among the Eomans, to have been considered a scandalous 
excess. He repudiated Caelia, expelled Metella from his house - 
on her death-bed, and degraded himself by his last marriage 
with Valeria. See Plut. Sull. 35. 

8. Amicitia facilis] "Eeady in proffering his friendship." 

9. Altitudo ingenii] "Deep reserve of character." Comp. 
Gie. de Off. i. 25, exercenda est etiam altitudo animi, and Tac. 
Annal. iii. 48, neque loco, neque vultu mutato, altitudine 
animi. Cicero gives the Greek word padfrrrjs as corresponding 
with it: ad Att. v. 10. Kritz in loe. 

10. Felicissimo] Sulla obtained the title of Felix, for his 
uniform success in war, which afterwards gave rise to many 
ironical allusions. Lucan, ii. 221, speaking of the proscriptions, 
Hisne Salus rerum, Felix his Sulla vocari, His meruit tumu- 
lum medio sibi tollere Campo ? Felix is a word of good omen, 
not to be predicated of a tyrant however successful. 

CHAPTEE XCVI. 

1. Igitur] After a digression, "To return, then." 

2. In paucis tempestatibus] i.e. intra parvum tempus. 
Comp. Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 40, binas in singulis annis con- 
versiones facit. So in brevi spatio or in brevi for intra. 

3. Ut illi cLuam plurimi deberent] Illi for sibi : a negli 
gence not unfrequent : comp. Cic. de Leg. i. 7, quibus auten 
haec sunt inter eos communia: pro Rose. Am. 34; pro Sest. 24 
Corn. Nepos, Hannib. 11. At Eumenes... nihil reperit nis 
quod ad irridendum eum pertineret. 

4. Joca] Only this form used in the time of Cicero: after 
wards joci, jocos. 

CHAPTEE XCVII. 

1. Belli atque pacis ration.es trahere] " Was slowly weigb 
mg the arguments for war or peace :" trainer e implies the dela 



NOTES. 171 

and hesitation of his counsels. Comp. the shades of meaning 
in the word in c. 92 and again in 98. 

2. Nullo impedimento] Priseian, vi. 7. 36, vetustissimi 
solent omnium in -ius terminantium genitivum, etiam in -i 
genitivum et in -o dativum proferre. Cie. pro Mur. 12 (if the 
reading is correct), ei quoque carmen compositum est, quum 
ceteris rebus absurdum, turn vero nullo usui utrisque. Caes. 
B. C. ii. 7, nullo usui. B. G. vi. 13, nullo concilio adhibetur. 
But it may be the ablative in this place, as in Cic. ad Att. x. 
18, majore impedimento fuerunt." 

3. Simul — et] " No sooner — than." Comp. Tac. Ann. iv. 
25, simul coeptus dies, et aderant in semisomnos. 

4. Aut instrui aut sarcinas colligere] "Before the army 
was arrayed for fighting, or had (even) put the baggage toge- 
ther" (as usual before action). Sar'cina, the soldier's pack or 
bundle : Juvenal, ii. 103, speculum civilis sarcina belli. 

5. Latrocinio . . . proelio] This opposition is frequently 
employed. Comp. Liv. xxix. 6, latrociniis magis quam justo 
bello gerebatur res. Cic. in Catil. i. 10. 

6. Veteres (novictue)] The last word should be put in 
brackets as suspicious, though found in all the MSS., except 
one. It is explained, "the Romans being veterans and recruits, 
and on that account skilful in warfare," i.e. because they were 
not all recruits. Sallust had used a similar combination, ch. 
87, sic brevi spatio novi veteresque coaluere, et virtus omnium 
aequalis facta : from which novique may have been foisted into 
this passage. 



CHAPTEE XCVIII. 

1. Manu consulere, etc.] " Since he could not aid his 
men as a general by giving orders, he aided them as a private 
soldier, by taking part in the combat personally." So ante 
ch. 39, armatus dedecore potius quam manu salutem quaesi- 

verat. 

2. Prose] " In their own favour.' 

3. Ex copia rerum consilium trahit] "Drawn out his 
plans from the various resources before him;" implying diffi- 
culty of choice rather than hesitation. 

4. Neque minus] i. q. non minus : neque properly is equi- 
valent to et non ; but the copula is out of place here. 



172 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

5. Pleno gradu] " In quick time." Veget. i. 9, militari 
gradu xx. millia passuum horis quinque, duntaxat aestivis, 
conficienda sunt. Pleno autem gradu, qui citatior est, xxiv 
millia peragenda sunt. Quicquid addideris jam cursus est, 
cujus spatium non potest definiri. 

6. Feroces] «* In their arrogance." 



CHAPTEE XCIX. 

1. Per vigilias...canere] The night was divided into four 
watches, measured by the clepsydra or waterclock, and the 
changes were indicated by the sound of the trumpet and horn. 
Veget. iii. 8, a tubicine omnes vigiliae committuntur, et finitis 
horis a cornicine revocantur: per vigilias, " for the watches," 
i.e. on account of. Comp. for this use of per, c. 79 and 85. 



CHAPTEE C. 

1. Quadrato agmine] " In a hollow square," i.e. arranged 
for defence in front, flanks and rear, with the baggage in the 
middle. The figure however was not a regular square, but an 
oblong. 

2. Dextimos] " The extreme right." Priscian, iii. 3. 19, 
speaks both of dextimus and sinistimus. 

3. Minime cari] "Whose lives were least valued." The 
primary sense of carus is "precious," as opposed to vilis, 
" worthless;" in a secondary sense "beloved." 

4. Item] i. q. etiam, " compelled his men also to hold 
themselves prepared." 

5. Neque secus, atque, etc.] "He entrenched himself 
after each day's march not less diligently than he marched." 

6. Non tarn dimdentia futurum quae] i. q. fore quae. 
Comp. A. Grell. i. 7, who shews by many instances that the fut. 
in -rus was used by old writers as an infinitive, without regard 
to concord in number or gender: e.g. Laberius in Gemellis: 
non putavi hoc earn facturum. This unusual construction has 
perplexed the transcribers, and occasioned great variations in 
the MSS. diflidentia, "from distrust." 

7. Malo] i.e. poena. Comp. Terent. Andr. i. 1. 44, malo 
coactus qui suum officium facit. Liv. ii. 54, malo domandam 
tribunitiam potestatem. 



NOTES. 173 

8. Nisi taxnen] i. q. sed tamen, with a parenthetic clause : 
'* But, however this may be, he conducted the public affairs as 
well as if he had exercised the harshest discipline." Bern pub- 
licam bene gerere ; i. q. rebus gestis bonum publicum auger e. 



CHAPTER CI. 

1. Citi] i.e. citato cursu. Comp. pleno gradu, note 5, c. 98. 

2. Aeque] i.e. aequo modo paratis, "He calculated that 
some of the whole number, having all an equal chance, would 
arrive." 

3. Quos...neque] i. q. quos...quique non. Comp. Cic. de 
Fin. ii. 2, finem definiebas id esse quo omnia, quae recte fierent, 
referrentur, neque ad ipsum usquam referretur: i.e. quodque 
ipsum nusquam referretur. Terent. Adelph. i. 2. 4, quern ne- 
que pudet quidquam nee metuit quemquam: i.e. quique non 
metuit. 

4. Numida...ad pedites] Jugurtha turns to the troops 
which Yolux had just brought up. He addresses them in Latin, 
in order that the Eomans with whom they were engaged might 
hear what he said: for it was the Eomans rather than his own 
men that he wished to deceive. Milites^ which follows, is, 
" the Eoman soldiers." 

5. Atrocitate rei] i.e. by the mere thought how shocking 
such a disaster would be, without considering the credibility of 
the asserter. 

6. Barbari animos tollere] What Jugurtha said in Latin 
may have been interpreted to the Numidians, or his mere action 
may have encouraged them, still more the evident consterna- 
tion of the Eomans. 

7. Turn spectaculum horcifoile, etc.] This passage is 
closely copied by Tacitus, Agric. 37, turn vero patentibus locis 
grande et atrox spectaculum, etc. 



CHAPTEE OH. 

1. Post diem quintum, quam] An anomalous construc- 
tion for die quinto post quam. 

2. Rex Bocche] This commencement of a speech with the 
name of the person addressed, and the prefix of " king," nei- 
ther of which are usual, imply peculiar respectfulness. 



174 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

3. Persequi] More properly persequendi; but the infin. 
follows the idea of non cogeres, implied in demeres necessitu- 
dinem. 

4. Inopi] This word may be enclosed in brackets. If it 
agree with populo, it must mean that the Eomans had conti- 
Dued feeble from the first : if with principio, it should be writ- 
ten inope, and transposed, ab inope principio. But it is sup- 
ported by the MSS. generally. Imperii written perhaps impi, 
is a plausible conjecture. 

5. Offensae minimum, gratia par] " Very little opportu- 
nity for quarrelling, and as much regard and favour as if we 
were your near neighbours." 

6. Parentes] " Subjects." See note on Jugur. 3. 

7. Cui scilicet placuisse] " Whom it has pleased." The 
infin. governed by scilicet, i.e. scire licet : as Jugur. 113, quae 
scilicet... occulta pectoris patefecisse. Fr. Hist. i. 19, at scilicet 
eos...gratiam ab eo peperisse. 

8. Pro delicto suo] " In excuse for his fault." 

9. Unde vi Jugurtham expulerit] Many MSS. and Edd- 
read expulerat. Bocchus had not expelled Jugurtha from any 
part of his dominions ; but this latter reading would make the 
author assert the fact. Expulerit may imply that Bocchus 
made the assertion, which was a false one. Translate: "A 
part of Numidia, says he, from which he pretends to have ex- 
pelled Jugurtha, had become his own by the right of conquest." 
Ciaeconius conjectured, si inde Romanos expulerit: and other 
corrections have been proposed: but there seems to be no satis- 
factory way of explaining the passage. 



CHAPTEE CIII. 

1. Turrim...quo] See note 3 on c. 66, Vagenses, quo Me- 
tellus praesidium imposuerat. 

2. Praesidium] According to the construction, merely in 
apposition to perfugas ; but with a pregnant sense, i.e. "so as 
to be a garrison." Comp. Tac. Ann. i. 3, Augustus subsidia , 
dominationi Claudium Marcellum...et M. Agrippam extulit. 
Liv. i. 8, Komulus locum... asylum aperuit. 

3. Venerant] i. q. evenerant. Comp. Liv. i. 7, priori 
Remo augurium venisse fertur. 

4. Sine decore] "Without the ensigns of their office as 
ambassadors." 



NOTES. 175 

5. Pro vanis hostibus] "As enemies trying to impose 
upon him with the false pretence of being accredited on an 



6. Ut meriti erant] "As they might reasonably have 
expected," coming as they did without credentials. 

7. Largitio] "The giving of largess;" i.e. treating with 
a view to corruption. 

8. Munificus nemo putafoatur, nisi pariter volens] i.e. 
bene volens: "no man was deemed liberal, but he was supposed 
to be to the same extent gracious and kind:" i.e. in those days 
people were so simple that they conceived, if a man gave his 
money freely, it must be from natural kindliness of disposition ; 
they had no suspicion of any ulterior object. 

9. Aut utilia aut benevolentiae] " Either advantageous 
to the Eomans, or likely to conciliate their favour.' 1 Benevo- 
lentiae, the dative : implying object or intention. 

CHAPTEE CIV. 

1. Ea...placuere] i.e. utrumaue placuit, both potestatem 
eundi dari, and inducias concedi. 

2. Stipendmm] " The pay for the soldier from the public 
treasury." Stipendium, properly "pay for service performed," 
solarium, "provision for service undertaken." 

3. Deprecati sunt] In a pregnant sense: i. q. postquam 
deprecantes dixerunt: " they urged in excuse." 

4. Delicti gratiam] "Pardon for his fault." Comp. 
Gatil. 52, qui mihi atque animo meo nullius unquam delicti 
gratiam fecissem. Fr. Hist. hi. 34, post reditum eorum qui- 
bus senatus belli Lepidani gratiam fecerat. 



CHAPTEE CV. 

1. Funditorum Balearium] " Slingers from the Baleares,' 
the islands Majorca, Minorca and Iviza. The Eomans em- 
ployed the services of these people as skirmishers. Comp. 
Caes. Bel. Gal. ii. 7; Elor. iii. 8; Liv. xxviii. 37, etc. Their 
name was supposed to be derived from the Greek paXXew. 

2. Conors Peligna] i.e. a cohort of auxiliaries from the 
country of the Peligni in the centre of Italy. These auxilia- 
ries are mentioned also in Livy, xxv. 14; xliv. 40. 

3. Cum velitarious armis] Accoutred as velites, or light 
skirmishers, with a sword and a bundle of javelins for attack, 
and a broad shield, parma, without heavy armour, for defence. 



176 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

4. Efficiebant] Governing metum directly, and numerum 
by zeugma: "made their number to appear greater than it 
really was, and caused fear on the part of their enemies." 
With metum efficiebant comp. Catil. 42, plus timoris quam 
periculi effecerant. 

5. Sese...expedire] "To lay aside the impedimenta;" 
" to make ready for battle." 

6. Intendere] Properly of stringing bows: here generally 
"to prepare their weapons." 

CHAPTEE CVI. 

1. Interiturae vitae parceret] Comp. Lucan, i. 462, ig- 
navum rediturae parcere vitae : an expression caught, it would 
seem, from this place. We have already remarked the fre- 
quent echo of Sallust in Lucan. 

2. Coenatos esse] Sub. jubet, " to have done their sup- 
per:" the perf. implies the immediateness with which the order 
was to be executed. 

3. Anteeos] " In front of them," i.e. of the Eoman forces. 
As the equites Mauri themselves formed part of these forces we 
should rather expect the reflexive pron. se. 

4. Manu vindicandum] " They should avenge themselves 
by putting him to death." 

5. Apud ilium] "With him:" apud implying close local 
connexion. Comp. Jugur. 24, si ulla apud vos memoria rema- 
net avi mei Masinissae. 

CHAPTEE CVII. 

1. Ab inermis pedibus] The form inermus seems to be 
used indifferently with inermis by the earlier writers. Transl. 
" from feet which bear no weapons." Comp. Ovid, Metam. xiii. 
103, qui clam, qui semper inermis Eem gerit: "fights his bat- 
tles without weapons. " 

2. Coecum corpus] " The blind part of the body," i.e. 
" the back." The expression is taken from Xenophon, Cyrop. 
iii. 3. 45, fiuopbv ykp to Kparelv fiouKofifrovs tcl Tv<p\ci rod (ru/ma- 
tos koI &oir\a Kal axeipa ravra ivavria tclttclv tols irdke/JLlois 
<p€vyovTas. 

3. Ex castris abire] Comp. 35, Massiva profugus ex cas- 
tris abierat. 68, Metellus...e conspectu abit. 

4. Haberet...ejus] Ilium referring to Jugurtha: patre 
suo, his (Yolux's) father, Bocchus ; ipse Jilius, Volux himself. 



NOTES. 177 

5. Ea res, ut in tali negotio, probata} "This course, 
considering there was no better under the circumstances, was 
approved." Comp. Cic. ad Div. xii. 2, nonnihil, ut in tantis 
malis, est prof ectum : de Senect. 4, multae erant in Q. Fabio, 
ut in homine Eomano, literae. 

CHAPTEB CVIII. 

1. Orator] i. q. legatus, as frequently in Livy. Comp. i. 
15; ii. 13; v. 15; xxxii. 17; xxxvii. 24, etc. Virg. Aen. vii. 
153; viii. 505; xi. 100, 331. 

2. Consulta... integra habere] "That he had preserved 
inviolate the covenant existing between them." 

3. Neu Jugurthae legatum pertimesceret quo res commu- 
nis licentius gereretur] Licentius, i. q. liberius, " that Sulla 
should not, through distrust of Jugurtha's envoy, Aspar, who 
was to be present, refrain from a free discussion with Dabar 
about the affairs between himself and Bocchus." If this is 
the meaning, we should expect quin or ne instead of quo. But 
it would be difficult to connect this sense with what follows. 
Kritz's conjecture, remoto after quo, gives the contrary sense, 
and a much better one. Another conjectural reading is, n. J. 
I. p.: cautum esse quo, etc. In any case *the passage seems 
corrupt. 

4. Punica fide] "With Carthaginian bad faith," a pro- 
verbial expression applied to the Moors and Numidians as well 
as to the actual Carthaginians. Comp. Lucan, iv. 736, Ut 
Libycas metuat fraudes infectaque semper Punica bella dolis. 
For the proverbial bad faith attributed by the Bomans to the 
Carthaginians, see Livy, xxi. 4; xxv. 39; xlii. 47; Flor. ii. 2. 
6 ; Val. Max. vii. 4. 4, etc. Plautus has the phrase, Poenis 
Poenior. Sil. Ital. i. 5, sacri quum perfida pacti Gens Cadmea 
super regno certamina movit. On the other hand, Attica 
fides was an expression for good faith, Veil. ii. 23, adeo enim 
certa Atheniensium in Bomanos fides fuit ut semper, et in 
omni re, quicquid sincera fide ageretur, id Bomani Attica fieri 
praedicarent. Ausonius, Epist. x. 47, contrasts Poena with 
Graeca fides. 

5. Attinuisse] " Kept in play, amused or engaged. " At- 
tinere is commonly used in a moral sense. So Sallust, Frag. 
Hist. i. 19, ne nos in solitudine attineas. But by Tacitus fre- 
quently for forcible detention : e.g. attineri in custodia. 

CHAPTEB CIX. 

1 . Congress!] i. e. Sulla and Bocchus, who afterwards 
retire to their respective camps, in sua castra. 

JUG. 12 



178 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

2. Ex sententia] "In the confidence of both," therefore 
such a person as either would wish to have present. Comp. 
Plaut. Gapt. ii. 2 96, nee quenquam fideliorem...Nec qui magis 
sit servus ex sententia. A. Gell. iv. 20, quum censor dixisset : 
et tu ex animi tui sententia uxorem habes ? not " such as you 
approve of," but " such as accords or sympathises with you." 



CHAPTEB CX. 

1. Nunquam ego ratus suml "I never should have 
thought." For the English conjunctive the Latin idiom here 
employs the indicative: comp. above, 11, quod verbum altius, 
quam quisquam ratus erat, descendit. Cic. de Off. i. 23, inge- 
nii magni est, non committere ut aliquando dicendum sit, non 
putaram, " I should not have thought it." 

2. Mehercule] " Cortius contra codd. scripsit hercle quae 
forma comicis usurpata Sallustio obtrudi non debet." Kritz 
in loc. 

3. Id imminutum] " The loss of this." 

4. Pretiuml This word seems, from the great fluctuation 
of MSS., to be a gloss, fuerit mihi, " let it be mine." 

5. Integra] Scil. gratia, "entire, undiminished;" as a 
score, no part of which has been repaid and obliterated. 

6. Bellum ego...neque feci, neque factum volui] "I, for 
my part, neither made nor wished made." 

7. Id omitto] " That I forego." 

8. Egrediar, intrare] These verbs refer to the idea of 
boundaries implied in the mention of the river. Statius, Sylv. 
i. 3. 110, Einem Nestoreae precor egrediare senectae. 

9. Haud repulsus abibis] Comp. Ovid, Metam, ii. 97, 
nullam patiere repulsam. Abeo is used, like discedo (comp. 
Gatil. 49, victus discesserat) , for the event of an attempt or 
contest. So Ovid, Metam. xiii. 278, eventus ... pugnae Quis 
fuit ? Hector abit violatus vulnere nullo. 

CHAPTEB CXI. 

1. Non in gratiam habituros] "As for his promises, 
they would not regard them as a means to deserve their favour, 
since they had already got the upper hand in war. " The accus. 
has a pregnant sense. About half the MSS. read in gratia, with 
the same meaning. See below, note on in potestatem habuisset, 
c. 112. 

2. Negitare] " Eepeatedly denied," urging various excuses 
in succession, as follows. 



NOTES. 179 

3. Ad simulandam pacem] " For making pretended over- 
tures of peace." 

CHAPTER CXII. 

1. Condicionibus] " On mutual terms," as opposed to 
arbitrio, "at the conqueror's pleasure." Comp. Veil. ii. 109, 
Maroboduus finitimos omnes aut bello domuit aut condicioni- 
bus sui juris fecit. Liv. xxxv. 42, neque vi expugnare... neque 
condicionibus in amicitiam pellicere. 

2. Fidere] Many MSS. read confidere; but the one is 
properly said of persons, the other of things. Kritz. 

3. Pacem conventam frustra fuisse] Eefer conv. to 
pacem, not to frustra, i. q. pacem quae convenisset. So pax 
convenit, above, c. 38. Frustra, adv. for partic. frustratam, or 
irritam, as frequently above. 

4. Ut una ab omnibus... veniretur] "That they should 
all meet together," soil. Jugurtha, Bocchus, and Sulla. 

5. In potestatem habuisset] The best MSS. read thus, 
not potestate. With esse and habere this construction is not 
uncommon. Comp. Cic. pro leg. Man. 12, quum vestros portus 
in praedonum fuisse potestatem sciatis. Liv. ii. 14, quae ne in 
potestatem quidem pop. Eom. esset. Caes. B. G. i. 25, quo 
facilius omne Hadriaticum mare in potestatem haberet. The 
idiom is further illustrated by Kritz in loc. 

6. Neque hominem...relictum iri] "And that a man of 
noble birth would not be left in the hands of the enemy, who 
had fallen into them through no ill-behaviour of his own, but 
in the service of the republic." 

CHAPTER CXI1I. 

1. Vultu corporis] "In external appearance:" the addi- 
tion of corporis makes the opposition to animo more precise. 

2. Quae scilicet] "Which things of themselves," namely, 
the external signs of his irresolution, the calling and then dis- 
missing of his people, and the changes of his countenance. 

3. Facillimum visu] " Convenient for keeping a look-out." 

CHAPTER CXIV. 

1. Per idem tempus] The capture of Jugurtha took place 
a.u. 648, B.C. 106. Caepio and the consul Manlius were de- 
feated in Gaul in the following year, by the Cimbri, who are 
here confounded with the Gauls, being properly Germans. So 
Cic. de Prov. Cons. 13, C. Marius influentes in Italiam Gallo- 
rum maximas copias repressit. Elor. iii. 3 ; Diodor. v. 32 ; Ap- 
pian, Illyr. 4t. Eor the invasion of the Cimbri and Teutones, 



180 SALLUSTII JUGURTHA. 

see Floras, iii. 3, and particularly Plutarch, in his life of Ma- 
rius, who defeated and destroyed them in the two great battles 
of Aquae Sextiae and "Vercellae. 

2. Quo metu] " In consternation at which defeat." 

3. Hlique, et inde usque, etc.] "Both the Eomans of 
that day, and since, down to my own times." This harsh and 
ungrammatical sentence Kritz would emend conjecturally, by 
reading ibique (i. q. et turn), for illique; "both then and since." 

4. Sic habuere] "Have been convinced of this." Comp. 
Cic. ad Div> xiv. 4, sic habeto, mi Tiro, neminem esse qui me 
amet quin, etc. 

5. Prona] " Easy to be subdued," i. q. facilia, with 
which it is joined, c. 80, id facilius proniusque fuit. 

6. Pro salute, etc.] Comp. Cic. de Off. i. 12, cum Cimbris 
bellum gerebatur, uter esset, non uter imperaret. 

7. Absens] This was contrary to the law, which required 
that a candidate for the consulship should appear in the forum 
on three successive nundinae, and canvass the voters. A gene- 
ral who waited for a triumph might not enter the city, and 
accordingly was in strictness prevented from suing for the con- 
sulship. To be released from this law was considered a great 
honour and favour. Julius Caesar claimed a triumph for his 
victories in Spain as praetor, a.tj. 694; but he was eager to 
obtain the consulship, and was compelled to forego the coveted 
honour in order to acquire the more valuable dignity. 

8. Triumphavit] Marius triumphed over Jugurtha on the 
first of January, 650, the commencement of his second consul- 
ship. Jugurtha, with his two sons, was led before his car, and 
carried off to the Mamertine prison, under the Capitoline hills, 
where he was thrown into the lowest dungeon and left to 
starve. Plut. Mar. 12. Captive generals thus led in triumph 
were often put to death immediately afterwards, as Vercinge- 
torix by Caesar, generally strangled. But in other cases they 
were allowed to live. Marius was considered vainglorious for 
entering the senate-house in his triumphal robe. Liv. Epit. 
lxvii. 



CAMBRIDGE: PRINTED BY J. & C. F. CLAY, AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.